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HOW 

ST ANDREW 

CAME TO 

SCOTLAND 



BY 

ANON. 



EDINBURGH 
TURNBULL & SPEARS, 16 THISTLE STREET 



TO 

JOHN MACGREGOR, W.S. 

Dear Macgregor 

The folloiving is as I understand it ! 
Yours 

Anon. 

August 1 917 



' —no. 

HOW ST ANDREW 
CAME TO SCOTLAND 

BY 

"ANON." 

EDINBURGH: TURNBULL & SPEARS 

AND ALL BOOKSELLERS 

Crown 8vo. 96 pages. Is. net 



In the beginning of the fifth century there was in 
Britain a Christian Church — the Pelagian. Two 
Bishops were sent to Britain to convert the Pelagian 
Church to conformity with the Roman Church. Lupus, 
one of them, came in contact with the Picts and Scots. 
The story speaks of the incident as a " defeat " of the 
northern armies, caused by the Lupus party, composed 
of southern Britains, crying " Hallelujah." Lupus was 
a priest, and the " defeat " was probably a success of 
his mission against the Pelagian Church, The Picts 
inhabited the south of modern Scotland. The Pentland 
(Pictland) Hills are of themselves a record of this. At 
the foot of the Pentlands, fourteen miles from Edin- 
burgh, is the village of Carlops, on the Biggar Road. 
Carlops we translate as " Lupus seat." Lupus means 
" wolf" ; Faolan is the Gaelic for a wolf. Dedications 
to a Faolan stretch from Fife to Argyleshire, and clans 
are called from one so named, e.g. Cleland, Maclellan, 
etc. Douglas = Cuglas = grey dog, is another descrip- 
tion of a wolf, as in the name Linlithgow, meaning 



the pool of the grey (Hath, Gaelic, " grey ") dog. There 
was thus a widespread reverence for Fillan, and his 
church can have been no other than that which was 
called the Culdee Church. If our suggestion of the 
identity of Lupus and Fillan is right, the Culdee 
Church was a survival of the Lupus " defeat " of the 
Pelagian Ficts and Scots. There is a Pictish name, 
Oengus (Angus), applied to Forfarshire. A certain Rule 
is said to have brought to Scotland relics of St Andrew, 
and to have made a disciple of a Pictish king, Angus, 
at a place called Kilrimont, now the city of St Andrews. 

The Scots, with whom were joined the Picts, were 
supposed to be Scythians. St Andrew was the patron 
saint of the Scythians (he is considered the patron 
saint of Russia now), and thus the Scots and Scythians 
were brought under one "rule" influenced from Canter- 
bury ; and St Andrews became the archbishopric of 
Scotland, an archbishopric claimed by Canterbury. 
The older Culdee Church, which was not an episcopal 
church, apparently moved its saintly relics to Scone. 
They were there preserved till about the time of 
Edward I. of England, who carried off what is now 
known as the coronation stone. 

We have tried to demonstrate the steps by which 
we reach the conclusion that the old Culdee Church 
was the British Church previous to the ascendency of 
Rome, that the Gaelic Fillan is the Gallican Lupus, 
and that the widespread influence of his name, evident 
from Fife to Ulster, connotes a localisation of the old 
Pelagian "heresy." The coronation stone and its bell 
and crosier, the Scottish regalia, were those of the 
Culdee Fillan-Lupus. 



HOW ST ANDREW CAME 
TO SCOTLAND 

In the year 429 a Synod of GalHcan bishops 
ordained St Germanus and St Lupus to go into 
Britain to oppose the Pelagian heresy — Pelagius 
having died in 420. Pelagius' heresy seems to 
have had, at least for one of its tenets, multiple 
marriage. As Celestius his companion when in 
Rome was said to have been " gorged with Scottish 
porridge," they evidently came from those northern 
regions notable for their darkness, the long dark- 
ness of winter, where was practised what St Jerome 
(340-420) speaks of as the immoral Scottish and 
Attacotish rite : the Scots, according to him {i.e. 
Jerome), not having wives peculiar to each, but as 
if they had chosen the policy of Plato practised 
what is euphemistically called free love. What we 
have received of this journey into Britain relates 
almost entirely to the doings of Germanus, but 
speaks of him as if throughout accompanied by 
Lupus, and informs us they were very active, 

3 



HOW ST ANDREW 



quickly filling Britain with their fame, their preach- 
ing, and their miracles. Southern Britain during 
their visit was attacked by the united forces of the 
Saxons and Picts, and our holy men being with 
the British as distinguished from the Picts and 
Scots from the North, by repeating Hallelujah 
loudly three times so frightened the enemy that 
they were taken with panic, flung down their arms, 
and retired to their own district. Germanus and 
Lupus having accomplished their mission returned 
to their own dioceses in Gaul. The result of their 
journey is said to have been that they effectually 
confuted the heretics and brought back the people 
to the way of truth. Lupus' sanctity was so great 
that he was said by another prelate of that age to 
be the " father of fathers " and " bishop of bishops." 
We have no further notice of his being in Britain, 
though Germanus subsequently returned. Lupus, 
thus brought in contact with the Picts, was born 
at Toul in Lorraine, a district originally including 
modern Holland and Belgium, and though Lor- 
raine is said to have received its name from the 
Emperor Lothair I., to whom it was allotted in 
843, this derivation seems doubtful. 

We must remember that Ninyas by birth a 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 



Briton, educated at Rome, who died about the 
year 432 and had been a pupil of St Martin of 
Tours, according to the tradition of Bede had built 
the Church of Whithorn in Galloway, and from 
there had Christianized all the Picts on the south 
side of the mountains, which in the usual accepta- 
tion of the term must mean what we now call the 
Grampians, more anciently "the backbone of Alba." 
According to the dates given in these traditions 
the converter of the Picts was still alive when 
Lupus reconverted them on his mission into 
Britain. Lupus' object, however, was a special 
one directed against the doctrines in favour with 
Pelagius, doctrines which had caused St Jerome to 
explain that he did not condemn double marriages. 
If tradition has any value, we may accept it as 
well founded that Pictish descent was counted 
through the female, and, as the same tradition tells 
us that the Picts having no wives when they came 
to this country were then given settlements and 
native women ; whatever the literal facts may have 
been we see that our earliest notices of the sexes 
among them ascribe to them the continuance, in 
some degree at any rate, of the predominance of 
the female. If the shouting of Hallelujah was a 



HOW ST ANDREW 



fact at the meeting of Germanus and Lupus with 
the Saxons and Picts and occurred at all, we sug- 
gest, judging from what happens at a revival 
meeting, it took place as a sort of general acknow- 
ledgment of the acceptance of the views of the new 
preachers, and thus a victory was gained for the 
anti- Pelagians, and the Picts and Saxons retired 
to their own homes. 

Is there any evidence left in Southern Scotland 
of a possible visit of St Lupus ? About 14 miles 
south of Edinburgh on the West Linton-Biggar 
road is a peculiar upstanding plug of igneous rock 
with a little village at its foot known as Carlops. 
A rock of somewhat the same formation in the 
West country is called " the pulpit " ; and with this 
information before us we look for the possible 
derivation of the name, the translation given when 
asked for being of the purely fanciful sort, " Carle 
loups," as if some fellow had jumped from the top 
of the rock. Car is a common factor in Celtic 
names, and in Welsh is translated a " fort " ; and 
cathair in Irish a " city," a " court," a " mansion " ; 
and the same word in Scotch Gaelic a " chair," 
" bench," " seat " ; and cathair- easbuig is, a cathedral 
and cathair-iontchair was the Gaelic used for a 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 



sedan chair. Car, then, we accept as the first part 
of Carlops with the meaning of " seat/' and the 
lops we accept as the name Lupus, Cathair-Lupus 
being Lupus' seat or pulpit. In the near neigh- 
bourhood, now occupied by New Hall House, was 
a religious foundation to whom consecrated in- 
formation seems entirely wanting, but the site of 
its hospitium, the Spital on Spital Hill as it 
is called, is still the residence of a farmer, and 
the Monks Burn runs into the Esk close to New 
Hall House, showing that we have to do with an 
ancient monastery, which we suggest was probably 
an ancient foundation, perhaps only traditionally 
connected with Lupus, tradition being maintained 
by the Carlops rock. Stone seats of saints are 
fairly common. 

We have seen that according to Bede the Saxons 
were among the converted at the Hallelujah 
victory, though Hengist is supposed to have 
invaded Britain in 454. If Bede is right we 
have evidence of the presence of Saxons before 
Hengist's day, and it does in fact seem probable 
that the Jutes had before this been settling on our 
east coast, and driving west and north those living 
about the wall from Forth to Clyde, subsequently 



8 HOW ST ANDREW 

called Cumbrians and Men of Fortrenn. Agricola 
occupied this district we know, not only on the 
authority of Tacitus ; but the remains of Roman 
camps from Delvine on the Tay through to the 
Moss of Crinan, lately examined, make it perfectly 
clear that a foreig'n occupation from the Tay valley 
to Lome had existed before the time of which we 
speak. As the Northumbrian Kingdom spread 
itself along the shores of Lothian, what was styled 
" the retinue of the wall," i.e. the organized 
defenders of the dyke between Forth and Clyde 
found a resting-place in North Wales, and tradition 
makes it clear that others of them passed into the 
country partly settled from Agricola's day, who 
there found a race descended from native women, 
consequently more or less allied to themselves, 
genealogically their fathers being men remaining 
from the previous Roman invasions : a very mixed 
lot no doubt but with probably more traditional 
civilization than the more northerly and more 
purely Celtic inhabitants of Scotland. These latter 
were the Scots. We must remember that accord- 
ing to the ideas of the Roman geographers the 
north coast of Ireland and the west coast of Alba 
lay along nearly the same parallel of longitude, 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 



and were the extreme parts of the world towards 
the North, and therefore those living there were 
on that part of the world " pertaining to darkness " 
(Greek) (tx&V/o; ; 6/ skStwi those procreated secretly 
and in darkness. The Picts were, according to 
our local tradition, descendants of foreign fathers 
(Roman soldiers ? etc.) and native women, becom- 
ing the " Men of Fortrenn " (Firu Fortrenn) from 
whom Southern Perthshire and the parts adjoin- 
ing received a name " Fortrenn." They were 
navigators as well as fighters, as they are credited 
so comparatively lately as A.D. 734 with having 
sent a fleet to Ireland. These Fortrenn men, 
whose name betokens " great brave " were also 
" fierce ones." In the eulogy of St Columba, 
Dalian the writer says, Columba " subdued to 
benediction the fierce ones who dwelt with Tay's 
High King," but the Yellow Book of Lecan 
explains the " fierce ones " as " thrice nine druids 
whose blessings and cursings were equally effec- 
tive." Tay is described as being in the Pictish 
district of Scotland. It is a little curious ascribing 
the ferocity of the tribes of Tay to druids, certainly 
suggesting a religious element being prominent in 
the locality. 



10 HOW ST ANDREW 

The name Fortrenn seems to have left no traces 
behind it unless it be in the name Forfar applied 
to what was a Pictish district meaning the " great 
men" vior, v/ior = great, fear, plural Jir=a. man, 
men ; the great men, big men, and as in the case 
of Fortrenn subsequently applied to the district 
in which they lived. M has the same sound as 
in English but when aspirated as it is called, that 
is, written with an h after it, it has the sound of 
V ox f. The adjective generally follows its subject, 
but we have the principal men of these districts 
called in the old language Mormaers where the 
adjective mor precedes, but the more modern way of 
writing the name is Maor Mor, where the adjective 
as in ordinary Gaelic procedure follows its subject. 

On the opposite side of Perthshire from Forfar, 
included, in fact, in Perthshire and if not a part of 
Fortrenn immediately to the south of it, is the 
district called Menteith. If taken in its obvious 
meaning the " Men of Teith," i.e. of the river Teith, 
which divides that district from the rest of the 
county, we have a Saxon district name, called by 
the term originally applied to the men who 
inhabited it, as we have seen in the case of the 
Gaelic Fortrenn. 



CAME TO SCOTLAND II 

Going further north the next of these ancient 
districts to that of Fortrenn is Athole, of which 
we generally speak of the inhabitants as the " Men 
of Athol." The history of these men is evidently 
connected with the name Athol, and looking at 
the derivations of the other localities mentioned 
Athol must be called for some reason peculiar to 
its inhabitants. 

Fodhla, a heathen goddess ; atk, a ford ; ath- 
fodhla with aspirated f, which therefore would be 
quiescent, Athole, The goddess is a pure philo- 
logical invention. 

About the year 975 King Edgar, who was then, 
according to Florence of Worcester, king of the 
English, appointed Adulf Earl over the Northum- 
brians from the Tees to the Myrcforth. In one 
MS. of the Saxon Chronicle the reading for this 
place is Myreforth. The Norse Sagas call the 
Firth of Forth " Myrkvafiord," and Myrcfirth would 
be its exact equivalent. Norse, vadill, vodill, a 
shallow water, a place where fiords can be passed 
on horseback, appearing in local Norse names. 
" vodla-thing." Bodotria itself, the old Latin for 
the Firth, seems compounded of Anglo Saxon vad^ 
a ford, and drygen, to dry ; and this survived 



12 HOW ST ANDREW 

during the Anglo-Saxon occupation of the district 
at the head of the Firth of Forth, called by them 
Fothric. Faodhail is Gaelic for a hollow in sand 
retaining water after the egress of the tide, and 
forms a part of the name of the island between 
South Uist and North Uist ; as we write it now- 
a-days Benbecula, being separated from South 
Uist by a narrow channel which is nearly dry at 
low water, Beinnfaodhaile, also Beinnebhakla. 

In 934 Constantin, king of the Scots, was driven 
by Ethelstan across the " Vadum Scotorum," the 
Forth, who crossed the river after them and com- 
pelled Constantin to surrender. The Forth is also 
called the Scot Water. Looking at the Myrkva- 
fiord and Myrefirth we find the Lowland Scotch 
mirk, myrk meaning dark ; the Saxon inyrce having 
the same meaning, and to myrk is to darken or 
make dark. The Forth in its higher reaches is 
shallow along the shore, and one can wade a long 
distance on a muddy bottom towards its centre in 
certain conditions of the tide, even so far down the 
Forth as Blackness. Whatever the exact locality 
of this, Vadum, ath or ford, it is simple to under- 
stand how the passage of any body of troops would 
obscure it. The Myreford then, historically, was 



CAME TO SCOTLAND I3 

on the Forth, and we are forced to the conclusion 
that the men of Athole were those who had been 
driven north at some time from their position at 
the head of that estuary. The name " Forth " 
means " the road " (Welsh Jffordd — passage) and 
alludes to the road accompanying the wall built 
from Forth to Clyde called " Gual." 

We have thus given appellations of a Celtic deri- 
vation of the districts in occupation by northern 
Picts, viz., the " great bold " (men), the "great 
men," and the " men of the Myreford." 

Let us now speak of the most notorious Scottish 
relic. In Langtoft's Chronicle, compiled about the 
year i 300, speaking of Edward's invasion of Scot- 
land in 1296, he says : 

" Thair kings Scet of Scone 
Es driven ovir doune 
To London i led. 
In town herd I telle 
The baghel and the Belle 
Ren filched and fled." 

This king's seat being a prominent object in 
Westminster Cathedral, and perhaps the most 
interesting property, to speak theatrically, at a 
British Coronation, has received a great amount of 
attention and caused considerable speculation. A 



14 HOW ST ANDREW 

thoroughly skilled Scottish geologist on examining 
it pronounced it sandstone, freestone, common in 
the neighbourhood of Scone itself. 

Scone is apparently called from its being the 
tabernacle in which the relics mentioned by Lang- 
toft were kept, (ry.r,v7i a booth, house, temple. 

We now may look for the bell and crozier. 
First let us remember that there is a well-kown 
Gaelic saying commemorating the bell of Scone, 
which says : " As says the bell of Scone, what 
does not belong to you touch it not." 

In 1798, in Glendochart, in West Perthshire, 
was a bell called of St Fillan which was carried off 
by an Englishman and taken south, but subse- 
quently returned to Scotland, and is now in the 
Museum of Antiquities in Edinburgh. 

In Strathfillan itself was preserved a crozier 
known as the Coigreach, meaning "stranger," 
which on examination was proved to contain what 
seemed a much simpler and, of course, presumably, 
considerably older crozier head, which explains 
quite satisfactorily the meaning of the name at- 
tached. The crozier of St Fillan, the " Coigreach " 
as the double crozier was called, was appropriately 
enough in the hands of a hereditary keeper called 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 15 

Dewar, the Gaelic word for a wanderer, also a 
stranger, a pilgrim. 

We have located St Lupus in Lothian at 
Carlops, where we find him under the name b)^ 
which he was known on the Continent. Lupus, 
of course, means a wolf, and in Gaelic a wolf is 
faol,faolchu, the older form of which wa.s/de/ and 
fael-chu. The diminutive an added to' a word is a 
sign of affection, therefore /^(?/<3;« would be "little 
wolf" or "dear wolf," and in the older writing 
faelan. This, then, is the meaning of the name 
Fillan applied to the Saint. St Lupus, then, and 
St Fillan have grammatically the same meaning. 
Masculine nouns in the genitive are aspirated- 
which in practice causes the fh of Fillan to be 
silent in compound words. FaolcJm means wild 
dog, i.e. wolf, and the wolf is also called liathchu, 
grey dog. Now we know that the Saxon 
Northumbria extended to the Forth, even at 
times passing beyond it, the Saxon influence 
shading off from the district they called Fothrik 
at the head of the Firth, on a line roughly to be 
drawn from the west extremity of the Forth to a 
little east of the Solway Firth, the district in- 
habited by the Strathclyde Britons, anciently a 

B 



l6 HOW ST ANDREW 

part of Cumbria, including Picts, who inhabited 
Galloway, and where Gaelic is said to have been 
spoken till comparatively recently, large numbers 
of Gaelic names remaining there ; and, indeed, we 
do not need to go further than Linlithgow, our 
modern way of speaking of the " Pool of the 
Grey Dog," " linn an Hath chuP 

From Carlops, Lupus' seat in Saxon Northum- 
bria, about twenty-five miles directly west as the 
crow flies, in the Parish of Bothwell, on a rock 
with a cave overhanging the South Calder Burn, 
is Cleland, the patrimony of the Clelands of 
Cleland, who tradition says were the foresters of 
the Earls of Douglas. The name Douglas, if we 
take the modern spelling lightly, and compare it 
with the ancient British names given in Gildas, 
we come to the conclusion that it should 
commence with a C, making Cuglas, i.e. the 
grey dog. The name Cleland, extended in 
Gaelic, is Mac-Gille Fhillan. Remembering what 
we have said as to the silencing of /// in 
the genitive of masculine nouns, that gille in 
combination in the modern spelling of names 
often leaves nothing but the / sound, and that 
Mac -son in the genitive is Mic contracted to ic ; 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 17 

put these together you have ic-l-aelan, " Cleland," 
the son of the servant of the wolf, or, as they say 
sometimes in GaeHc, the grey dog. We do not 
believe that the property of the Clelands gave 
them their name, as is stated in the " Origines 
Parochiales." Notice the rock and the cave at 
Cleland House, as we had the rock at Carlops, 
which we translate " the chair of Lupus." 

Casting our eye on the map another twenty-five 
miles west, with a slight tendency to the north, in 
Strathgryfe, in Renfrew, in the deanery of Both- 
well, hinting at some connection with the name 
of the Clelands, was the Parish of Kilallan, 
Killillan, Kilellan, i.e. the church of Fillan. An 
authority for this derivation was the old church 
bell recording the name of the Saint to whom the 
church was dedicated, and who was considered 
the tutelar saint of the parish. Chalmers tells us, 
*' In the vicinity of the church there is a large 
stone with a hollow in the middle still called 
Saint Fillan's seat, and near to that St Fillan's 
well, formerly in great repute for curative virtues." 
" St Fillan's Fair is still held annually in this 
place in January " (St Fillan's commemoration 
day was 9th January). In Bagimont's Roll the 



HOW ST ANDREW 



"vicarage of Kilallan " was taxed £2^ 13s. 46. 
In Strathfillan, again, near the holy pool, were 
the ruins of St Fillan's Chapel, in a corner of 
which was the rock bed of St Fillan, to which the 
insane were tied during the night. 

If we now proceed north-west, about four miles 
directly north of the river Earn, and ten miles 
directly west of Perth, are the remains of Inch- 
affray Abbey, in what is now the Parish of Mad- 
derty. In Gaelic, Madadh is a dog, niadadh alluidk 
is a wolf, a wild dog ; ty = house. The connection 
of Inchaffray and St Fillan we will return to. 

Proceeding straight west up the river Earn, at the 
end of the loch of the same name, we come to what 
is now called St Fillans, in the near neighbour- 
hood of which was Rath Erann, otherwise Dun- 
durn, which Skene tells us was the principal 
stronghold of the men of Fortrenn. The Saint 
Fillan, .specially mentioned in connection with 
Dundurn, has the epithet atn lobhar, translatable 
either as am, the lobhar leper, or am a negative 
and lobhar, modern labhair speaking, therefore 
not speaking, mute. Now it is interesting that 
the Felire of Aengus speaks of this Fillan as 
the " splendid mute," while in Sweden the wolf is 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 19 

called " the silent." We quote this because that 
qualification may have struck others as well as 
the Swedes. Colgan, the Irish hagiologist, calls 
this Fillan, however, " Leprosus." 

North-west from St Fillans is Killin at the west 
end of Loch Tay, said to have been the principal 
seat of the worship of St Fillan. Killin is at the 
mouth of Glendochart, which again after we pass 
Loch Dochart is prolonged by Strathfillan. The 
name Killin we take to mean White Kirk — " in " 
—find^ white — but whatever its connection with 
Fillan, the first " armed " native mentioned in con- 
nection with it, the date is comparatively recent? 
was Macgillechrist — present day Macgilchrist — 
son of Christ's servant. 

Killin was so called probably from having been, 
as it was, a settlement of Carthusians, the " white 
friars " from Perth. 

Let us consider the connection of these places 
from a Church point of view. 

Gilbert of Strathearn founded in 1200 the 
Abbacy of Inchaffray, bringing from Scone the 
Canons necessary for its foundation. It was the 
Abbot of Inchaffray who was the principal church- 
man present with the Bruce at Bannockburn, and 



20 HOW ST ANDREW 

the saintly relic upon which Bruce relied was the 
arm-bone of St Fillan, and in gratitude for the 
assistance given him Bruce founded a priory in 
StrathfiUan. Scone was the locality of the Coro- 
nation Stone ; at Inchaffray we conclude was the 
arm-bone relic, and in Glendochart and Strath- 
fiUan were Fillan's crosier and Fillan's bell. What 
we are told of the arm-bone puts it in the posses- 
sion of some priest who had charge of it, and it is 
not immediately connected with the Abbot him- 
self. Boece tells us Bruce had its silver case in 
his tent, of course supposing that it contained the 
relic. The case, however, to use Bellenden's 
translation, " chakkit to suddanlie," the noise of 
which closure called the attention of the priest in 
charge who had left the bone elsewhere for safety. 
He then examined and found the bone in the case ; 
doubtless it was after the relic had introduced 
itself that the lid of the case " chakkit." To 
" chack " is Scottish for the clacking noise made 
by the check when the quantity of yarn required 
for a cut has been wound on a reel. 

There are a number of Fillans mentioned in 
tradition. There were nineteen of them accord- 
ing to Colgan, but two have been differentiated in 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 21 

Scottish story, the southern settlements being 
ascribed to the one, the northern ones with which we 
are now dealing being ascribed to the other. We 
look upon this as an excogitated difference, we 
consider them one and the same, and the particu- 
lars we are told of them, as for instance, the names 
of their fathers and mothers, as monkish inven- 
tions. Thus we hear of Fillan's father being 
Feriach ; fer is fir " man," and riach is riabhag 
" the grey one," z'.e. wolf, grizzled, the grizzled one. 
His mother was Kentigerna, Ken, ceann (Gael) 
" head " ; tighern — " lord " ; a chief, a king, a 
prince : but as he had a father a wolf, a female 
termination makes a princess of this head prince. 
Has this not a distinct suggestion of the crowning 
place. Scone, of the chief ruler in Pictish Scot- 
land, and according to Pictish tradition where 
nobility was reckoned through the female, natur- 
ally it would be a princess and not a prince who 
would give the son a right to royal precedence. 

The patron saint of Glasgow is well known as 
Kentigern, but he has another name, Mungo, 
applied it is said to him by St Servanus, who 
used to call him " in the language of his country, 
Munghu, which in Latin means Karissimus 



22 HOW ST ANDREW 

Amicus." Compare Munghu and the Gaelic 
spelling of Glasgow, Glasghu. Glasghu un- 
doubtedly may be translated " grey dog." Munghu, 
if we connect it with the Gaelic, Irish, and Scottish 
muin, teach, instruct, the word is formed " the 
instructing dog." St Mundus is a name evidently 
connected with the same verb of instruction, and 
we are told that Fillan succeeded St Mundus of 
Kilmun, of whom he was a disciple, as abbot of 
his monastery there. As a disciple and follower 
then of a pre-existing Mundus, Mund-cu, Mund's 
dog, describes him fairly well. There is no forcing 
of a derivation in this case. We refer also to 
the name of Cuchullin, the " dog of Culan." Culan, 
evidently an invented personage, we hold to mean 
" son of Fillan," often spelled Fullan, Cuchullin, 
i.e. dog of son of Fullan. The dog, we know, has 
been called man's greatest friend. There is no 
Gaelic word mun with an affectionate meaning, 
but, of course, there is a Latin one meaning 
" clean," in ecclesiastical Latin " morally pure," 
free from sin, certainly a cause of great affection 
by a Christian teacher for his pupil. 

Fillan betook himself to an uncle Conganus at 
a place named Siaracht in Glendochart. Con- 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 23 

ganus ? cu genitive plural co7i dogs — conan, a 
snarling, mischievous character in Scottish Ossianic 
stories. Conari = " doggies." Conan is a river 
name in Ross-shire. 

In the Pictish Chronicle, composed about the 
tenth century, the Picts are credited with being 
the descendants of a certain Cruithne, who had 
seven sons. The names given to these are those 
of districts in what we now call Scotland, in older 
days Alba ; Fife, Athole, Fortrenn, already men- 
tioned, etc., and one to which we now allude for 
the first time, Circinn. The spellings vary con- 
siderably. Athole appears as Fotla ; Fife as Fib ; 
and Circinn also as Cirig. Where the Gael write 
cu for " dog," the Welsh use «', forming the plural 
ciun with the Welsh w^ which has the sound of 00 
in good ; the Gaelic plural corresponding, is cona^ 
coin. Circinn we translate as ci-air-cinn, dog- 
headed ; while the other name Cirig, as appro- 
priate to the governor of such people, ci-rig, 
dog-king. The king, called Ciricius or Grig of 
the Pictish Chronicle, is evidence of an early 
cultus of some sort of some such name as that of 
Saint Cyricus or Cyr, and the name Ecclesgreg 
points to the same thing. There was a Christin 



24 HOW ST ANDREW 

Mack£^ri£; a tenant of the Prior of St Andrews, 
before 1 1 44 ; and Mal^rz^, Prior of the Culdees 
of Muthill, in 12 14. Saint Fillan, the mute, has 
for his day the 20th of June ; Ciricus day is the 
1 6th June ; and the solstice is given in the same 
authority, the Calendar of Aengus, as the 21st 
June, rightly enough ; and from about that period 
may be said to have commenced the ancient dog 
days. From these facts we conclude that there 
was some connection recognized between this dog- 
king and Fillan. As the name Forfar does not 
occur in these traditional histories, Circinn as a 
district close to what was spoken of as Fortrenn 
must have included this Plain of the Dog-heads, 
a frequent designation of it being Magh Circinn, 
Magh meaning "plain." In the Irish story of 
Conghal Clairinghneach, a king of Ulster, Anad- 
hal, son of the king of the Concheanns, and his 
Concheanns, having heard that Conghal had made 
a banding with the son of the king of Alban, also 
made such a banding. The tale speaks of the 
land of the Concheanns but does not say where 
it was, but the connection with Alban, Scotland, 
is sufficiently clear. Concheanns means " dog- 
heads," and we can have no doubt the name was 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 25 

used in allusion to Magh Circinn. Now for a 
fact to identify locality. In Stewart's " Sculp- 
tured Stones of Scotland," plate cxxxviii., is 
preserved a figure, clothed with the leine (shirt) 
with a dog's-head carrying a double crosier — not 
double in the sense of one being inside the other 
like St Fillan's. The stone on which the figure 
was cut was found at Strathmartin in Forfarshire, 
or, as they say, Angus. This stone has, unfor- 
tunately, since been destroyed, but there is not 
the slightest doubt of its appearance and its 
locality, and the dog's mask — we suppose it was 
such — upon the figure. Here, then, we would 
place the locality of Fillan's uncle, Conganus. 
The use of ci in Cirig and Circinn seems a trace 
of an approximation at any rate to the Welsh 
dialect of the so-called Picts. 

The place to which Fillan is said, in the 
Breviary of Aberdeen, to have gone to his uncle, 
was Siaracht in " Glendeochquhy," and it is a 
natural conclusion that this glen is that of the 
Dochart, which runs into Loch Tay and is a 
continuation of Strathfillan. Siaracht has left no 
trace of its name in the locality, but siar is the 
Gaelic for " the west," and Siaracht would there- 



26 HOW ST ANDREW 

fore be westward, undoubtedly pointing out his 
move to Strathfillan, which lies to the west of the 
district where was found the dog-headed sculp- 
tured figure. If this supposition is correct, it is 
no use looking for an exact locality " siaracht." 
Siaracht would also be the direction he (if there 
had been a man " Fillan ") took if he went to 
what was northern Argyle, and is now Ross- shire, 
to Loch Alsh, where he is commemorated along 
with Congan in the churches of Kilkoan and 
Killellan, the former being a quite normal pro- 
nunciation for Kill-Congan, as the latter of Kill 
i^^ellan. 

On the line west from Strathfillan we come 
to the country of the MacGregors — a name the 
derivation of which we suggested is Groegwr : 
Latin, Graecor = Greeks — persons living after the 
manner of the Greeks.^ In 1630 the Lords of 
Council granted a commission to the Earl of 
Monteith and other nobles and prominent men to 
call together the lieges and pursue with fire and 
sword certain lymmars of the Clan Gregour, 
several of whom are styled M'Coull, and in 
Glenurchy, till quite recently, there were four or 

' See '■" Our Ancestors : Scots, Picts, and Cvmry," p. 367. 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 27 

five families known locally by their Gaelic name 
MacCuail. They, like other MacGregors, in 
speaking English, called themselves MacDonald, 
but this proves the connection of the MacGregors 
with those calling themselves " of the wall " — 
Gual. 

Further north than the line Inchaffray, St 
Fillans, Killin, but in the centre of Athole lying 
in the neighbourhood of the Falls of Garry and 
of Bruar is Strowan (the streams), dedicated also 
to St Fillan. This was in the possession of the 
Robertsons, considered the chiefs of the Clan 
Donnachaidh. Here was also an iron bronze- 
covered bell called the Clag buidheann, the " bell 
of the troops," lately in the possession of the 
M'Inroys of Lude, also in the near neighbourhood 
of the Blair of Athole. Lude, called till 173 1 
Balnagrew — Balnadhruidh — Druids town — or 
more directly druth, "a /<?(?/," "a harlot," those who 
did the " shaving of birds and fools" the frontal 
tonsure of the Culdees and of Simon Magus — 
compare the druids of the tribes of Tay, p. 9. 
The name of this bell leads naturally to the sup- 
position that it was subsidiary to the bell of Fillan, 
the troops probably alluding to the clans in the 



28 HOW ST ANDREW 

immediate neighbourhood of Logierait, said on 
the authority of the New Statistical Account to 
have been called Bal no Maoir, i.e. the " town of 
the thief-takers," as they say, maor being the 
Latin major — now, in English, mayor, the prin- 
cipal officer of a town. We may conclude that 
the Buidheann was, as it were, the diploma of 
this troop of thief-takers. Logierait (? Log a rech- 
taire), the " place of the steward," the equivalent 
of the Maor riaraiche, modern Scottish Gaelic for 
rechtaire, a word which is still used in Irish. 

Consider the name of the Clan Donnachie, 
Donnachaidh. Tradition and history mixed tell 
us that Rob Reoch = " freckly Bob," a chief of 
Clan Donnachaidh, was killed in an encounter 
with Forrester of the Torwood, Robert claiming 
as the righteous possession of his people that 
locality, the Torwood itself being about two miles 
north of the Roman dyke, " Gual." From this 
Robert, the Robertsons. His grandfather was 
said to be contemporary with Bannockburn (i 3 14) 
and called Donnachadh Reamhar. " Duncan the 
Fat" — from him the Duncansons. But it is 
notable, seeing we are dealing with a churchy 
subject, that Domhnach is applied in Gaelic to a 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 29 

church and to a holy relic, e.g. the Doinnach 
airgid, " the silver Domnach " — a copy of the 
four gospels ascribed to St Patrick preserved in a 
threefold shrine of wood, copper, and silver. The 
derivation of the word is from the Latin dominus, 
and is used in Gaelic for Sunday, Di-domhnuich ; 
Irish, Domhnach, " the Lord's Day." The claim 
advanced for the Clan Donachadh is that it arose 
from the possession of, or connection with, a holy 
relic, and, if so, whose relic can it have been but 
of Fillan — we do not say that it ever was in pos- 
session of St Lupus. 

We have mentioned the foundation by the Earl 
of Strathearn, in 1200, of the Abbacy of Inch- 
affray with the necessary clergy for its foundation 
brought from Scone. The Abbacy of Scone itself 
was founded in 11 14 by Alexander I. who, we 
think, may possibly have been the first king 
crowned on this so-called fatal stone, said to have 
been brought from Argyle by Kenneth MacAlpine, 
about 850, its starting-place being guessed at as 
Dunstaffnage. This we believe to be the com- 
mencement of the mythical story of the stone, 
composed to give it a good basis for reference, 
Dunstaffnage being accepted as " Stephen's dun." 



30 HOW ST ANDREW 

Stephen's connection with stones, of course, is 
notorious. 

Kenneth MacAlpine is said to have been a 
" Scot," and the Pict and the Scot have been 
differentiated as if they were a distinct people. 
After all, the term Scot was applied to those who 
were supposed to live in the obscurity, as it were, 
of the cornice of creation, <sy.oTia darkness, Scotia, 
a sunken moulding so called from the dark shadow 
it casts. They were in fact those to whom Tom 
Moore might have applied his lines as dwelling 

" On the verge of creation 
Where sunshine and smiles must be equally rare." 

It was the Abbot of Inchaffray who was with 
Bruce at Bannockburn ; at Scone we had the fatal 
seat ; at Glendochart we find St Fillan's crosier, 
and further west St Fillan's bell. What about 
the arm-bone ? When St Rule brought St 
Andrew's relics to St Andrews the principal one 
was St Andrew's arm which has disappeared- 
Alexander the First (1078-1124) in his deter- 
mined fashion accepting the division of the country, 
made by Edgar the Saxon, assumed the kingship 
of Scotland north of the Firths, and there main- 
tained the independence of his government with 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 3I 

perseverance during the continual disquiet by the 
ecclesiastical pretensions of the Archbishops of 
York and Canterbury to a superiority over the 
Scottish See. On the death of Turgot, Bishop of 
the Scots, nominated by the Archbishop of York 
in opposition to the claims of the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, Alexander diplomatically applied to 
Canterbury for a successor. After long delay one 
Eadmer was nominated who, dying, Alexander 
nominated Robert Prior of Scone ; Culdee Kilri- 
mont, now St Andrews, becoming the cathedral 
city of the Bishops of the Scots, gifted with large 
possessions by Alexander (see Appendix, p. 88). 
St Andrew was the patron saint of Scythia, and 
the Pictish Chronicle, drawing for its information 
from Isidore of Seville who died in 636, says : 
" The Scots who now erroneously are called 
Hibernians may also be called Sciti because they 
come from Scythia from which they had their 
origin. It may be that they had their name 
from Scotta, daughter of Pharaoh, king of Egypt, 
who was said to have been Queen of the Scots." 
The latter information is not from Isidore. At 
the end of the tenth century, however, it is clear 
that the Scot and the Pict were inextricably 
c 



32 HOW ST ANDREW 

mixed in literature, and the relics with which we 
are dealing were ascribed to the Scots ; the Picts 
being supposed to have been exterminated. The 
advent of St Andrew's relics was said to be during 
the reign of a Pictish monarch, Hungus, Angus 
(reigned 731-761), who chose for the place of 
their conservation Rigmund, the traditional locality 
of his meeting with St Rule, Regulus, the old 
name of St Andrews being YLWrimoni, translated 
as " cell of the king's mount." We suggest that 
it was during the rivalry of the Archbishops of 
England that the arm-bone relic disappeared from 
St Andrews, probably under the care of Robert of 
Scone. Note that it was not in the charge of 
the Abbot of Inchaffray, at Bannockburn, but of 
a separate keeper. Kilrimont was a Culdee and 
not Roman establishment. In fact there was a 
prior and brethren of Culdees there in the begin- 
ning of the fourteenth century. Now, what was 
there at Scone ? The Royal Seat ; the fatal stone 
to which an infinity of attention has been paid, 
and a crosier and a bell. Where are the baghel 
(crosier) and the bell } At Westminster was the 
big lump of red sandstone, probably from the 
neighbourhood of Scone, in a prominent position, 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 33 

though when it was first placed there it was the 
seat of the officiating priest. On this evidently, 
when at Scone, stood the bell, certainly the more 
interesting relic, and the baghel more easily 
removable would be in the possession of the 
person who had charge of the bell. The stone 
was difficult to move, was in all probability with- 
out sanctity except in connection with the bell 
and crosier, so these were carried off and the stone 
left for Edward to transport. We have no doubt 
of its having been used in connection with the 
installation of the Pictish Ruler, and we have a 
further suggestion of this in what we are told of 
St Fillan's bell. When St Fillan went west, 
" siarach," he is said to have built a basilica, the 
name given to the form of Christian churches 
built by Constantine ; but in Greek, n iSaaiXixri, 
meant hereditary monarchy and the remains of the 
building in Strathfillan was said to be his cathedral. 
Here also in the Fillan Water is the Holy Pool, 
in which the insane were dipped and where, after 
having passed the night bound, the bell was set 
on their head with great solemnity. So far as the 
remnants of regal initiation were preserved in the 
district it was the bell that was the property used. 



34 HOW ST ANDREW 

No doubt the stone of Scone had been removed, 
but a stone seat was not wanting near the pool. 
Why insanity should be the human failing par- 
ticularly chosen for treatment is difficult to say. 
But it is a fact that the bell of St Fillan as we 
have it is unsound — to put it in ordinary language 
it is badly cracked. Saims of itself simply means 
" sound," " whole," and if the bell was not sound 
it was insanus. The curious decoration of its 
handle will suggest the reason why dipping in a 
" pool " quieted at any rate an insanity mentioned 
by Plautus. 

The Christianity of Scotland was, till the time 
of Canmore, entirely, and till the time of his son 
Alexander I., who died 1124, largely represented 
by the Culdees, and it is of importance to remem- 
ber that they rejected the worship of saints and 
angels. " It was only when they were supplanted 
by a new order of monks that a change was in- 
troduced in the case of the establishment at Scone, 
which was dedicated anew by Alexander, not only 
to the Holy Trinity as before, but also to God 
Himself, St Mary, and others." There seems a 
strong probability that at this date, 1 1 14, was the 
commencement of saint worship in Alba. If then, 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 35 

as we suppose, there were relics of a Lupus rever- 
ence preserved at Scone, it would in no wise be 
strange if these relics had passed into the hands 
of lay keepers who, when the new forms of 
government were introduced in the reign of 
Malcolm Canmore with the advice and assistance 
of the Saxon Queen and her followers, should 
retain something of the authority which would 
naturally follow the possession of such things. 
The Maors (Mayors) became Thanes, though while 
William the Lion addressed himself to his Thanes 
in Perthshire he gave the same sort of orders to 
his Maors in Galloway, also a Pictish district. 
Certain of the officials called by these titles held 
power in what were called Abthaneries. The 
Culdee monasteries were in modern ecclesiastical 
terminology " Congregationalist," so their govern- 
ment was largely in the hands of the local superior, 
and peculiarities in each we have no doubt existed. 
This superior " Father " (Abba) must have, it is 
clear, been called at one period of this Church's 
existence in Scotland an abbot. If the wives of 
the Culdees were not admitted to the monasteries 
during residence, they certainly were not forbidden 
altoo-ether, and from this state of matters the 



36 HOW ST ANDREW 

family of an abbot would necessarily almost 
retain the prominent position of their progenitor, 
and this would account quite naturally for the 
power subsequently exercised by laymen with a 
church title. Prior seems to have been the title 
more common to Culdee settlements, and is cer- 
tainly a preferable translation of Maor than Abbot, 
and we conclude therefore that the title of Maor 
is more likely to have been that used by the Picts 
and Scots, and as we find it a dignity applied to 
laymen we have another indication of a custom 
from which the Culdee churchman would become 
a lay official. We have exactly the same thing 
in the use of the title of Prior among the reli- 
gious knightly orders. The clan " Macnab," i.e. 
Mac-an-abba, was subsequently of consequence in 
the Abthanery of Dull. One of the holders of 
such an Abthanery was Crinan, father of King 
Duncan, from whom Alexander himself was de- 
scended, and an ordinance of William the Lion, 
another descendant of Crinan 's, seems to carry on 
tradition, in his instruction to his Thanes, evi- 
dently including the Thane of Dull, that if one 
with a grievance in that part of Argyle which per- 
tained to Scotland, in which is the old Pictish 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 37 

fortification now called Dunad in Crinan, he was to 
send with him his own men to guarantee the rele- 
vancy of the complaint. We speak of Dunad as 
a Pictish fortification ; we do so from considera- 
tion of the results of the investigations there 
carried on, and further from the fact recorded in 
the Annals of Ulster that Egfrid warring with 
his cousin Brude, king of the Picts, burned about 
the same time, A.D. 685, Tula Aman and Duin 
Ollaig, i.e. Inisthuthill (Delvine) on Tay, and 
Dunolly in Crinan in Lome, not the modern 
Dunolly close to Oban, the name of what was 
described as " the chief stronghold " of the tribe of 
Lorn being carried on to the more modern castle. 

Crinan of the Abthanery of Dull was no parson ; 
he was a fighting man though called Abbot of 
Dunkeld, and was slain by Macbeth in 1045, 
according to the Annals of Ulster. His Chris- 
tianity being of the Culdee type, Saint Lupus' 
relics would be no more to him than, say, Glad- 
stone's walking-stick to a liberal-minded Scot of 
the present day. 

Coming down in the circle of years from Crinan, 
passing William the Lion to the day of Robert 
the Bruce, we have seen the stone at Scone carried 



38 HOW ST ANDREW 

off by Edward. The arm-bone said to be Fillan's 
and which we believe to appear in Romanist 
Church Records as that of St Andrew, we see 
not in the possession of the Abbot of Inchaffray 
but of that of a nameless individual. We find 
Robert Bruce giving powers of police to a certain 
Deor (Dewar) of the Coigreach, both words 
meaning " stranger," the said " Stranger " being 
the crosier of St Fillan, to pursue and recover 
stolen cattle for certain perquisites including a 
pair of shoes. This Dewar was a layman, pure 
and simple, but his diploma, the staff, disclosed 
the secret of its name on examination only in 
our own time, when it was discovered that an 
ancient bronze was enclosed in the more modern 
and more ornamental regulation bishop's crook. 
Thus we find that there were two St Fillan's 
crooks (?) as well as two St Fillan's bells dis- 
tributed between the Thanedom of Dulmonych 
and the Abthanedom of Dull without the monych 
= " monks." The bronze bell and the bronze in 
the crosier head, which bronze, by the way, has 
much the same bend as the " bachuill more " the 
"great staff" of St Moloch long preserved in the 
family of the Livingstones in Lismore, seem to be 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 39 

of about the same date, while the Logyrait bell is 
an iron bell, hammered, not cast, and of the same 
description as other iron bells in Scotland and 
Ireland, St Patrick's for instance, and probably of 
local manufacture. The unmistakable crosier 
head seems to be the most modern of all the four 
productions. The short bend of what we have 
spoken of as the older crook lends itself easily to 
the supposition that it was so formed as to be 
used as a hammer for the tongueless bell.-^ There 
is no historical record ascribing the custody of 
either bell to any separate family, and it is only 
when we come down to quite recent times that 
we find a name in the district where it was 
located with such a meaning ascribable to it, 
Macilglegane, Mcglagane. Glagan is more par- 
ticularly a clapper than a bell itself, and there 
can be no doubt that those Gaelic-speaking 
bearers of the name took that view. Glagan 
doruis is a " door knocker." Neither of St Fillan's 
bells is provided with a clapper. Clag is a bell, 
an a diminutive of affection. There is, however, 
such a thing as a clach ghlagain in Gaelic tradi- 

• We have it on record that the ancient Irish Saints sometime 
cursed oftenders while soundingtheir bells with blows of their crosiers. 



40 HOW ST ANDREW 

tion. The causeways, clocliain, for approaching 
so-called Pictish towers built in fresh-water lochs, 
were composed of stepping-stones placed in a 
curve and under the surface of the water. Tradi- 
tion has it that one of these stones was so 
balanced that when a person approaching the 
dun put his foot on it it made a sound, a grating 
noise. This was called the dach ghlagain, the 
warning stone. All know that rocking stones 
are called Logan stones, Laggan stones, the initial 
g (c) having become silent. " Clochan " for a 
causeway occurs in the Irish name for the Giant's 
Causeway, " Clochan na bh-Fomorach." Clach, 
clock, a " stone/' and if we compare that of one 
of the clans who fought on the Inch of Perth in 
1 396, Clachinyha, we see how it may very well 
be translated " of the causeway." It is not ad- 
visable to deduct too much from the spelling of 
a name ; deducting it would be too much in such 
a case as this, to conclude that any single spelling 
of the name, however old and however plainl}-' 
comprehensible, accurately fixes its philology. 

In the Lists and Muster Rolls of the Scots 
Guards in France, A.D. 1424, is " Wastre Laquin 
Chevalier du pays d'escosse," i.e. Walter Lagan. 
In the Muster Rolls of the Life Guards in France 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 4I 

" Walter Lecky, Chevalier du pays d'escosse," re- 
ceived certain payments on the 20th July 1435 
for him and his people ; evidently the same man, 
and we say so because leac or leag is the spelling 
of a word signifying a " flat stone " or a " precious 
stone," a " jewel." The paymaster of the Guards 
apparently gave more attention to the Scottish 
pronunciation in the case of the first entry, and 
we suggest the second spelling was owing to 
Walter giving a more noble significance to his 
patronymic rather than that of a mere slab of 
sandstone. In 1497, in the same Muster Roll 
among the men-at-arms, we find Loys de 
Claquin ; the de doubtless representing mac, there- 
fore MacClaquin, while in 1496, among the Life 
Guards is a man-at-arms, Patrick Maclelain, i.e. 
Patrick Mac-Gille-Fillan. Loys, judging from 
his French Christian name, was surely born in 
France, a descendant of someone of that name, 
not impossibly Walter above. Present-day ex- 
perience in the writer's case is that the writing 
MacLagan is one almost invariably adopted by 
those who have no Gaelic, the older spellings 

preferring Mac<r/ . Curious to say, there is 

a Scotch spelling, 1692, Mack-claquane. 

Seeing the ancient bells had no clapper slung in 



42 HOW ST ANDREW 

them, they were necessarily struck like a gong 
with a separate instrument, that this was so the 
expression used for sounding a bell in Gaelic still 
is to " strike it," and so in the list of Patrick's 
household we find mentioned " Sinell, the man of 
the striking {beiti) of the bell." Now this Sinell 
is called in the Gaelic Patrick's aistiri ; while in 
Latin he is described as catnpanarius ; so we see 
that the bell-ringer was called an aistiri. Aistiri 
is neither more nor less than ostiariuSy i.e. " door- 
keeper." The Seanchus beag, an Irish Brehon 
tract, does a little philologizing like other people, 
and explains uas aitreoir, so spelling the word 
aistreoir because " noble was his work {uas-a- 
threoir) when it is the bell of a round tower." 
Thus we see that a high respectability was 
ascribable to a bellman of sorts. In Tenant's 
day he tells us of the death at lona of the last 
of the Clan an Oister, Ostiarii, the door-keepers 
of the monastery. Here then we find a reason 
for the frequent occurrence of such names as 
Durward, the name of his hero in Scott's romance 
of the Scots Guard, Porteous, Macandorsair, etc. 
Now the name Macandorsair leads to the only 
traditional story connected with the name Mac- 
lagan, of any value, dismissing such futilities as 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 43 

a man being so called from swimming the River 
Laggan ; saving the life of a calf, leogan, etc. 
Barbour tells us how that Bruce, when retreating 
from his foes in the near neighbourhood from 
which the bronze bell o^ St Fillan was first taken 
in modern times, was attacked by two brothers 
" that were the hardiest of hand in that country," 
and a third, in a narrow place betwixt a loch side 
and a brae still pointed out. Bruce disposed of 
the whole three according to Barbour, but one of 
them retained Bruce's brooch, which subsequently 
remained in the possession of the Macdougalls of 
Lome. Barbour's Gaelic name for them is Makyne 
Drosser, but he translates it "sons of the Durward." 
Tradition, naturally, one might say, makes these 
Doorwards, Macdougalls, the fight having taken 
place in Lorn. MacDougall, as we spell it now, 
and as it has been spelt for some time, with the 
meaning of the " black stranger " {dim black, gall 
stranger, lowlander), has its pronunciation made 
more or less clear by the spellings we find in 
various places where clans of these MacDougalls 
existed. Let us take a spelling of 1528 from the 
Black Book of Taymouth, Makcwill of Ragarra, 
MacCoull of Dunnollycht, Angus M'Cowle, dwell- 
ing in Glenroy ; M'Dougall Reoch, alongside of 



44 HOW ST ANDREW 

his brothers, whose names are spelt DouUreoch 
and M.2icCoulreoch in 1573. These spellings 
carry us from Strathtay to Lome. Now there 
are other MacDougalls than those we find from 
the neighbourhood of Fortingall to Dunnollycht. 
that is in Galloway, the spelling being M'Coull, 
McQuhoull, and also McOull. On the authority 
of Campbell of Islay, a first-rate authority in 
such a matter, the Gaelic pronounciation of Mac- 
Dougall is Macgooill. We have tried to demon- 
strate the reasons of our belief for associating the 
early names of the clans of the Tay and Teith 
and Athole with those driven north from the 
head of the Firth of Forth, settled along the 
Forth and Clyde Dyke, by pressure from Frisian 
and other Saxon invaders. Now judging from 
what we see in Strathtay, and knowing that the 
Cumbrian Britons were also present west, it 
seems likely that there is a connection between 
the Galloway name McCoull and the Perth and 
Argyle MacCoull. All know that there exist 
still, one may say, very recognizable remains of 
the wall stretching from Tyne to Solv/ay, and so 
early as the first part of the fifth century Orosius 
gave the length of this latter wall as 133 miles, 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 45 

which really is a fair computation of the length 
of both the wall and the Scottish dyke. Accord- 
ing to Nennius the Roman Vallum was called 
" Guaul," which, after all, simply means " wall." 
It seems clear that these clansmen were so 
called as " sons of the wall." We see them to 
have been considered Picts, their Christianity 
apparently Culdee, and they had for regalia 
certain relics ascribed to a teacher, subsequently 
called a saint, whose name was " Wolf" 

There are other dedications to St Fillan than 
those we have mentioned ranging over a fairly 
wide stretch of Scotland. There was a church 
at Aberdour dedicated to him, and it is in the 
immediate neighbourhood, on the main land, of 
the island settlement dedicated to Columba. 
There was also in Fife a cave at Pittenweem 
dedicated to St Fillan. At Doune, on the Teith, 
a chapel within the fortifications, and another 
" extra castrum " pointing therefore to a reverence 
for a Fillan among the men of Teith as well as 
those of Athole and Strathtay, and in Wigton, the 
country of the southern Picts, is Kilfillan, where 
were native names such as Maclellan, Clellan, 
MacClolan, often called Cleland. They were a 



46 HOW ST ANDREW 

Strong people in Galloway, and gave their name 
to Balmaclellan in the Glenkens, and one of them 
built the castle of Barscobe there. They were 
also lairds of Bombie, and most of the land about 
Kirkcudbright. Here we may take in a curious 
story explanatory of the coat of arms of the 
MacClelands of Bombie — a Moor's head on the 
point of a dirk for crest, and a yellow shield 
with black chevrons. This Moor, it seems, had 
come to Galloway and laid waste the countr}'. 
A stranger knight came to Galloway and asked 
what the king would give him if he slew the 
Moor ; the answer was the lands of Bombie. 
The Gall, foreigner, Gaul, managed to poison the 
black stranger with henbane, and cut off his head 
while lying under the influence of the drug and 
presented it to the king, who gav'e him the stipu- 
lated reward. The Gall then took for his crest, 
shall we say, MacCoull's head. The black man's 
traditional name is Black-Morrow. The pro- 
nunciation of the name is evidently connected 
with a farm in the neighbourhood called Black- 
Morrow, but there is no doubt of the negro, dubh 
Gall, head crest. Talking of armorial bearings 
the Lion Office crives us the followinsr as an 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 47 

addition to a collection of blazons made by Joseph 
Stacey, a herald who died in 1689 : 

" M'lagan, a branch of the M'Cleland, 
Or two cheverons sable within a 
bordure of the last." 

This coat-armour business is, of course, very 
recent relatively, but it shows indisputably the 
accepted connection of the Maclagans with Fillan. 
There is no record of Maclagans in Galloway, but 
there is an honourable family of Bells. An in- 
scription on a knight's tomb at Dundrennan spelt 
MacCleland, " Maklolandus," from which was de- 
duced apparently that he was originally from the 
lowlands of Holland. A like name occurs in con- 
nection with the ancient St Patrick's bell, the iron 
bell preserved in a highly ornamental shrine called 
the Clog an Eadhachta ; a bell of the same make 
as that spoken of as at Logierait. The keepers 
of this bell appear in 1356 in the Annals of the 
Four Masters in the following terms : " Soloman 
O'Mellan, keeper of the Bell of the Will, died ; he 
was the general patron of the clergy of Ireland." 
O'Mellan means the " descendant of my Fillan." 
On the case of the bell itself is marked the request 

D 



48 HOW ST ANDREW 

of a prayer for Donnell O'Lochlain through whom 
this bell was made, and for Donnell the successor 
of Patrick with whom it was made, and for 
Chathalan U Maelchalland the maer of the bell ; 
i.e. the official of the bell. Here, then, we find an 
undoubted trace of the reverence paid to Fillan in 
Perth and Galloway, and in Armagh, the keeper 
of the bell so called of St Patrick describing him- 
self as a descendant of a servant of Fillan. Has 
the name Black Morrow any connection with 
Maor, Maer ? caused by the misinterpretation of 
MacCoul as Mac-Dubh-Gall. 

Ulster has from the earliest traditional times 
had among its population a proportion of Cruith- 
nigh, i.e. Picts. St Patrick himself came from the 
Cumbrian coast of England, and when we see in 
history that Ulster was early settled by Scots, we 
take it that that statement means men from modern 
Scotland. Nobody knows exactly when Scotland 
got that name. At the commencement of the 
fifth century Claudius Claudianus said that icy 
Ireland wept heaps of Scots. Ireland is not so 
icy as Alba, but the geographical idea of the 
position of Alba was that its west coast was the 
north coast, running on about the same parallel of 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 49 

longitude with the proper north coast of Ireland, 
bending forward towards the east. When its true 
position was recognized, and it was, so to say, 
made to sit up, its northern extremity pointing 
north and not east, and giving full credit to the 
icy character of the habitation of the Scots, it 
might then have well been called Scotland, the 
native tongue, however, retaining, as it does to 
this day, the name Alba. 

Let us look at the Gaelic name for the Picts, 
Cruitneach, Cruithnigh, etc. In Gaelic corn is called 
cruithneachd, and if we are right, and this deriva- 
tion of the name for the Picts supports our con- 
tention of the Romano -British origin of those so 
called when we consider Caesar's statement that 
the inland inhabitants of Britain did not sow corn, 
but lived on milk and flesh, therefore those whose 
principal victual was corn would naturally get a dis- 
tinctive appellation. We see an exactly parallel case 
in South Africa, where the Africander Dutch are 
called Boers, i.e. cultivators. This name for corn 
presumably is not native, and we look upon it as 
a learned name with its origin in the Greek ^p'ldri, 
" barley," from which we know there was a o/kj ix 
■KfiOim, " barley wine," mentioned by Herodotus. 



50 HOW ST ANDREW 

The introduction of brewing into these islands is 
credited by authorities to the Ron:ians. There is 
no ground really for there being any connection 
between cricth^ " form," " appearance," and cruith- 
neach, one who changed his appearance by tattoo- 
ing his skin, Pictus. The cultivator has always 
been considered a somewhat unintelligent, stupid 
person, and our word boor for an unmannerly, 
uncultured individual is a distinct survival among 
ourselves of this feeling. Campbell of Islay gives 
us the " Lay of the Great Fool," whose descrip- 
tion of himself is " I am the great Fool," the son of 
the knight's wife (female descent), the nursling of 
the nurse, and the foster brother of Donald, the 
nurse's son. He was a warrior of the best, wrath- 
ful and fierce, and is described by the super- 
natural being the Gruagach of the golden Dun 
whom he had conquered, as the " mighty fool is 
his name, the men of the world are at his beck, 
and the yielding to him was mine." " The Great 
Fool," an t'amadan ntor. The Welsh for an agri- 
culturist is amaethon ; thus the Gaelic for a fool 
is the Welsh for a boor. There is a Breton tale 
of Peronnik I'ldiot who, though his adventures 
differ in detail, is of exactly the same mentality, 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 51 

SO to say, as " the Great Fool " ; both were cniith- 
nigh^ i.e. agriculturists, but Firu mhor treun, 
" men great and warlike." 

" Cruithnigh " is continually spoken of as an 
" Irish " name for the Picts, but that is not so, as 
the Pictish Chronicle makes Cruithne the fore- 
father of the Picts of Scotland, and the names of 
the provinces those of his sons. Cruithne is said 
to have had a father, Cinge, in which we recognize 
«', the Welsh spelling of the Gaelic cu, a " dog," 
« = an " of the " ; ce, as the Highland Society's 
Dictionary translates it, " globus terrae," " dog of 
world." In Irish story a tribe of invaders is 
spoken of as the Fir Domhnanns, the " men of 
the Universe," a name excogitated for the 
Romans : compare also Cinge and Cirigh already 
spoken of 

It is almost a heresy to express disbelief in 
the Christianizing of the Picts by Columba. Con- 
sideration of the story in Adamnan of his visit to 
Inverness and his dealings with Brude the Pictish 
king, of the same name as that given to the king 
of the Picts who defeated and slew Egbert the 
Saxon at the battle of Linn Garan, and Brude's 
druid Broichan, shows it a mere monkish fable. 



52 HOW ST ANDREW 

Put against this the relics of Fillan and the 
concatenation of folk story from the time of the 
writing by Bede of the conquest of the Picts by 
Lupus, and the names founded on tradition in the 
territory of the Culdee Church, there can scarcely 
be any doubt of the Christianity of the Picts of 
central Scotland and Galloway — a Christianity of 
a sort probably taking shape after the mission 
aimed against the Pelagian heresy. Here let us 
recall that in the so-called epistle to Coroticus, a 
British Prince, ascribed to St Patrick, he accuses 
Coroticus and his people of being companions of 
the " Scots and apostate Picts." If there is some 
truth in this tradition, their apostasy was from the 
Christianity of Pelagius ? 

If we consider the relics of him whom the 
Romish Church subsequently called Saint Fillan. 
we see there were two possible crosiers, two bells, 
and we suggest one arm, which was ascribed to 
St Andrew, and one hewn stone. All of these 
were preserved at one time (we have lost the arm) 
in the Pictish district stretching across the centre 
of Scotland from Fife to Argyle. The only one 
of these relics said to have been originally in the 
possession of a church was the St Andrew's arm, 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 53 

for the Scone stone was said to come from 
Dunstaffnage, and the bells and crosiers were 
undoubtedly in the keeping of laymen, and it 
would appear that the arm was so also. There 
were thus two ecclesiastical outfits, so to say ; and 
when so-called history came to be written it was 
a natural deduction that there was a Fillan for 
each of them. Having then two Fillans, each 
must have a genealogy, and as they were con- 
sidered " Scottish " saints these genealogies were 
derived from Ireland. One Fillan is said to have 
been of the race of Aenghus, son of Nadfraech, a 
king of Munster. Aenghus is the equivalent of 
unicus, the " only one " ; aen (Gaelic), one ; and 
is the name of the king who received Saint Rule 
and St Andrew's arm. Nadfraech, on the authority 
of Joyce, nad in composition means " nest," but 
nada is a " bit " ; nide, a thing, a jot, a part of 
anything ; and brae, braich, is an arm ; Nad- 
bhraich, " of the bit of the arm." Nadfraech, 
however, was made, a Scot-Irishman, a king of 
Munster. Of Aenghus of Cashel, we are told 
that he was the first Christian king of Ireland 
baptized by St Patrick, who during the ceremony 
damaged the king's foot with the point of his 



54 HOW ST ANDREW 

crosier. Aenghus died in 489, say the Annals.^ 
Feredach, the father of the other Fillan, also spelt 
Feriach (see p. xii.), is given as probably of the 
race of Fiatach Finn ; Fer-etach, " man of (fine) 
clothes " ; Fiatach Finn^ Fair Ferocious, son of 
Daire, i.e. of Oak, son of Dluthach, of weaving, 
and his mother, as we already said, Kentigerna, a 
feminine form of the name Kentigern, otherwise 
called Mungu, and we are also informed that this 
Fillan was a pupil of Mun, and succeeded him as 
Abbot of Kilmun. Kentigerna was a daughter of 
Cellach Cualan, a king of Leinster, Cellach cer- 
tainly suggests the Latin cella, a granary, subse- 
quently the cell of a religious person, Cualan, very 
suggestive of Gualan ; and, remembering that 
there was a Roman roadway from Forth to Clyde 
along the dyke called Gual, it is curious to notice 
that the only Cualon in ancient Irish history is a 
Slighe Cualon, a road called Gualan, finished in 
Ireland in the reign of Conn the hundred fighter. 
In what part of Ireland, history sayeth not. The 

^ The Tripartite Life tells us that all the arrachts (= idols) in 
Aenghus' palace fell on their faces like Dagon before the Ark when 
Patrick went to Cashel. We must remember that this incident is 
one in the manufacture of the Sen Patraig by the Romanists claim- 
ing seniority in the Christianity of Ireland. 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 55 

date ascribed to the death of Hungus, who received 
the relics of St Andrew from St Rule, is the year 
736 (Annals of Ulster, say 761), that is two 
years after the death of Kentigerna, mother of 
the Fillan, celebrated on January 9th. Curious 
to say, Hungus is said to have gained a great 
victory over the Britons at Tynemount by direc- 
tion, in a vision, of St Andrew; as Fillan subse- 
quently did for the Bruce at Bannockburn. At the 
time of the controversy regarding the independence 
of the Scottish Church, the legend of St Andrew 
and other documents antedate the dedication of St 
Andrews by four centuries, i.e. to the fifth century. 
The date of the mission of Germanus and Lupus 
to Britain was 429. It is clear that there were 
relics enough of quite the same description for 
two saints ; but it is incredible to find two Irish- 
men of the same name settling themselves, so to 
say, the one at St Fillans at the end of Loch 
Earn, the other in Glendochart at the end of 
Loch Tay, within an easy day's walk the one of 
the other ; and noteworthy to find that in the 
centre of the district of which the bounds were 
Glendochart, St Fillans, Inchaffray, and Strowan, 
is a place called Doul, the Abthanery, from the 



56 HOW ST ANDREW 

official of which apparently the Sons of the 
Abbot Mac-n-ab claim descent. Lupus of the 
mission was born at Toul, in Lorraine. Hungus 
is said, in the French chronicle of the Picts and 
Scots, to have been slain by treachery at Scone. 

When we consider that it had been thought 
advantageous to conceal the more ancient bronze 
inside the one subsequently known as the 
" Stranger," Coigreach, a word apparently derived 
from the Old Irish, cocrich, meaning a " mutual 
boundary " — the stranger, therefore, was one of a 
neighbouring province. We may conclude that 
to whichever of the bronzes of the double staff 
head the name was originally applied, the 
older of the two was purposely concealed with a 
view to its remaining in the hands of its then 
keepers. Comparing it with the shrine of St 
Patrick's bell, made some time in the eleventh 
century, of whom the Maer was called O'Mul- 
holland, descendant of Fillans bell, we doubt if 
the external crosier was much older if at all, and 
it may very well have been made about the time 
when Donnell O'Lochlein, who ordered the making 
of the shrine, came to the throne in Ireland in 
1083, according to the " Four Masters," and died 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 57 

in I 121, while Alexander I. died but three years 
later in 1124. When Edward I. carried off the 
stone we presume then that the crosier, which 
was filched with the bell, was the old one already 
covered, and the bell was clearly the bronze 
cracked one now in the Museum of Antiquities. 
Of course we make no suggestion as to any of 
these having been in the hands of Lupus ; it 
seems more probable that a tradition of his con- 
version of the Picts and Scots had continued, and 
the church properties had been in the possession 
of those who considered themselves his coarbs — 
co-heritors. As already mentioned, the iron bell 
at Logierait, with its title of " the bell of the 
troop," does not make claim to be the principal 
bell of St Fillan ; nor is it necessary, though 
compared with the cast bronze bell it has a more 
primitive look, that it should be as old or older. 
Bells of iron, folded from a sheet of metal and 
hammered together, as were those of Patrick, 
Fillan, and others, were made in comparatively 
recent times, and, though left exposed to thieves 
and the weather, the writer himself saw in 
Glenlyon an ancient hammered-iron bell of the 
same make resting in an open churchyard in a 



58 HOW ST ANDREW 

hole constructed for it in the dyke with no one 
apparently to take any charge of it. 

When had the bell and crosier fled from the 
companionship of the stone ? Certainly previous 
to Edward's carrying of it off, and it is equally 
certain that the crosier was double before the 
separation. We notice the widespread con- 
nection of Fillan names in Pictish territory in- 
cluding Ireland. The name Maelchallain changed 
to O'Mulholland should mean, the first, " the 
tonsured servant of the son of Follan," and the 
other, "the descendant of the bell of Follan," 
and were those of families of distinction in the 
counties of Derry and Meath. Derry is the 
same word as Daire, from whom was descended 
the Fillan son of Kentigerna, and in Derry their 
location was in the barony of Loughinsholin 
which means the " loch of the Island of Fillan " ; 
while in Meath they were the chiefs of Delvin- 
beg, and Delvin in the parish of Caputh in Perth- 
shire is the name of what was Inchtuthill, that Tula 
Aman burnt by Egfrid according to the Annals of 
Ulster in 685, when he was defeated and killed 
by the Picts, If our deduction is correct, the 
Christianity of the Culdee Church was the Chris- 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 59 

tianity of the Picts who therefore rightly enough 
would call themselves of the family of Faolan, 
and naturally, if a religious ceremony was a part 
of the dedication of their rulers, it would be 
carried out under the auspices of their first " holy 
man," as they would talk of him judging of the 
mode of reference to Columba and others in 
Adamnan's life. 

The stone . at Scone, as we have said before, 
has all the evidences from its composition and 
appearance of being a local product of middle 
Alba, and might perfectly well have been left 
in its location at the end of the church wall at 
Scone by those who carried off what they sup- 
posed to be real relics, and who were certainly 
Men of Fortrenn and considered themselves the 
descendants of the defenders of the wall, as in 
fact they probably were. But those with whom 
the sandstone slab was left would pin their faith 
to that royal seat which remained with them. 
Now we find that there were two clans who bore 
ill-will to each other ; one the clan Qwhewyl and 
other relevant spellings, of which we specially 
mention here that of John McOuhoull in Arbrak 
a Galloway example in 162 i, which we take to 



60 HOW ST ANDREW 

mean the " Clan Guall," i.e. the " children of the 
wall " ; and the other the " clan of the stone," 
Clachinyha ; clach, a " stone," clachan, a village 
with a church (and bell ?), clochan, a " causeway." 
So deadly was the enmity of these two clans that 
they were persuaded to meet for an armed combat 
thirty against thirty in A.D. 1396, Between the 
battle of Cressy in 1 346 and the battle of Poitiers 
in 1356, the war between the English and the 
French had degenerated, so to say, to partial 
encounters in which the kings of the two countries 
took little or no part. In Brittany, Roger Beau- 
manoir commanded an English party at Jocelyn, 
and Branborough for the French at Ploermel, at 
a distance of about three leagues the one from 
the other. Branborough challenged Roger to 
come with two or three men and fight him with 
a like number. Roger offered to bring twenty 
or thirty if the French captain would do the same, 
and they would fight it out midway at a large 
oak in the open moor. Thirty was the number 
arranged for, and on the day fixed they met and 
fought to a finish after intervals of repose and 
refreshment. The historian says the combat of 
thirty was more spoken of than a great battle, 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 6l 

and its ferocity was distinguished in a proverb 
that became common, " they fought like at the 
combat of thirty." The spot is still marked 
where this combat took place, between, as the 
present record says, " thirty Breton knights and 
thirty English knights." We are told they fought 
on foot, having dismounted from their horses, and 
though described as knights, they were frankly 
called brigands by contemporary authority. There 
can be no doubt that this example had appealed 
to the authorities in Scotland and caused them 
to suggest to our Perthshire " caterans (caterva, 
Latin), as they considered them, to settle some 
local quarrel resulting in continual raids among 
themselves. The names of the clans which took 
part were those given above. We have men- 
tioned the combat in Brittany in some detail to 
demonstrate the great similarity between it and 
the combat of Perth, viz., its extreme notoriety and 
its occurring in 1351, but thirty-five years before 
the combat of Perth, the characters of those en- 
gaged virtually men fighting for their own hand 
independently of any state connection, though, it 
is true, the leaders in Brittany were attached to 
the separate parties contesting predominance in 



62 HOW ST ANDREW 

the state. Doubtless any single individual of the 
four thirties had a strong inclination to appropriate 
the goods of his opponent, but the feeling for a 
fair fight, what in Gaelic has been expressed in 
terms signifying " Equity of the Feen," speaks 
well for their inherent chivalry. We are told in 
the Scotichronicon that the Perth men were 
armed with bow and axe and knife and sword, 
and without armour, while the combatants in 
France were armed with lances, daggers, axes, 
long, hand priming axes garnished with hooks, 
while pole axes were specially mentioned as per- 
missible to those fighting at Perth. Both parties 
fought within what we would now call a ring, 
and ample provision was made for spectators on 
both occasions. There can be little doubt that 
the conditions arranged in Brittany were those 
suggested by Sir David Lindesay and the Earl of 
Moray to the Scottish " bands " of very irregular 
free companions. 

Tiiat the combatants in both cases were near 
neighbours is almost self-evident, and equally 
certainly that it was a sort of family quarrel. 
The name of the clan as given by Wyntoun 
which has puzzled commentators most is what 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 63 

he calls " Clachinyha." Commentators have taken 
clachin as the word " clann," and worked their 
will with the letters yha, making it Kay and Hay. 
Now we all know the story of the Hays of 
Luncarty, which certainly locates the Hays in 
the near neighbourhood of Perth. These fabulous 
Hays were husbandmen, cultivators like the 
Cruithnigh, and there can be no doubt, especially 
when we look to the oldest historical mention of 
them and find the hereditary constable, an office 
like that of butler, doorkeeper, steward, confirmed 
in the family " de la Hay," and, as at the time 
when these offices appear (date of Alexander I.), 
their occupants were Morevilles, Comyns, etc., 
French names, the meaning to be attached to 
" de la Hay " is " of the dyke or hedge," corre- 
sponding with that we give as translation of the 
other clan's name " of the Gual " ; the "gual " 
was a dyke. The possession of Errol by the 
Hays in the time of Malcolm Canmore when 
Errol was witness to the king's charter to Scone 
is much better evidence of a local connection than 
the story of Luncarty, the manufacture of which, 
in part at least, is made clear by the statement 
of the name having originated with the old farmer 

E 



64 HOW ST ANDREW 

lying wounded calling attention to himself by 
shouting " Hay, Hay." 

We have mentioned the possible derivation of 
the name of the Cruithnigh from the Greek word 
for barley, and the probability that they were 
considered growers of that grain as much for 
brewing purposes as for use as meal. It is 
among the traditions of the family that a de la 
Hay was cup-bearer to the king. The name we 
have said is French, and because it does not appear 
in Scottish annals before the middle of the twelfth 
century, they are supposed to be of Norman 
origin, and yet the Luncarty man was only a 
peasant. Those with whom the Constables of 
Scotland at first appear in history were of French 
origin. We would reconcile tradition and history 
by the Constables having translated their Celtic 
patronymic denomination " children of the d}'ke " 
into " de la Haie." 

Bede, after telling of the defeat of the Picts 
and Scots as affected by the crying of Hallelujah, 
says it was a feat by " the prelates, who thus 
triumphed over the enemy without bloodshed, 
and gained a victory by faith without the aid of 
human force, and having settled the affairs of the 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 65 

island and restored tranquillity as well of the 
invisible as of the carnal enemies prepared to 
return home." As the object was the defeat of 
Pelagianism, it is a fair conclusion that there 
were Pelagians among the Picts and Scots who. 
having admitted the sacred character of the Old 
Testament " Hallelujah," had satisfied the mission- 
aries of their Christian character. The Pelagian 
heresy still survived, however, as Germanus had 
to make a second visit to Britain for its confutation 
in the year 447. 

Germanus' first visit to Britain was, according 
to Bede, the result of a resolution come to by a 
synod of the bishops of Gaul, but on the authority 
of Prosper, Palladius was consecrated by Pope 
Celestine to the Scots believing in Christ as their 
first bishop about the year 431. Palladius went 
to Ireland, apparently, to be badly received, and 
it was at his suggestion that the mission of 
Germanus was undertaken. After Germanus' 
second visit the Scottish, including Pictish, Chris- 
tians were by no means completely converted to 
Roman doctrine and usage. A century after the 
death of Palladius the Culdee Church used a 
different tonsure, and celebrated Easter on 



66 HOW ST ANDREW 

different calculations from the Romish Church, 
and it was not until about the year 692 that 
Adamnan, having accepted the Roman usage, 
persuaded the Scots in Ireland to celebrate Easter 
according to the Roman cannon, but returning to 
lona failed to get the Columban clergy there to 
accept his views. He died about 704, and after 
his death only did they accept the Roman Easter. 
Surely then the Scottish tonsure and Scottish 
Easter were derived from a time previous to 
Palladius, who died in the Pictish Mearns one 
year or so before Patrick is said to have gone to 
Ireland in 432. Tradition, if it proves anything, 
proves there were two Patricks, this one called 
Sen Patraic, and a later one at the end of the 
seventh century. Old Patrick was a name given 
to Palladius to carry back the conversion of 
Ireland to Rome to the earliest likely date. 
Palladius, according to subsequent authority, died 
at Fourdoun, in the Mearns, about the date given 
for Patrick's mission, and his name there was 
" Pledi," his fair being carried down to quite 
recent times as " Padie " Fair. When full com- 
munion with the Romish Church became the 
rule among the Scots, and the Culdee Church 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 67 

was in a small minority, the early missionaries 
became official saints to the majority, and Patraic 
was conscribed patron of Armagh. Palladius- 
Patrick, if localized anywhere, is so in Pictish 
Ireland, at Armagh, and Palladius, Germanus, 
Lupus, Fillan, Columba, Ninian, are all also 
found with a strong Pictish connection, as dis- 
tinguished from the more comprehensive Scottish, 
and we therefore claim the subsequent Culdee 
Church as Pictish ; a Church that no doubt 
originated in Britain, and passed over to Ireland 
by means of Britons, and we must not forget 
that the Picts. of all Picts the men of Fortrenn, 
when they had given their name to a locality, were 
spoken of as the Britons of Fortrenn. 

We have called attention to the connection of 
the names of the keepers of St Patrick's bell 
with Fillan, but tradition gives us more to go 
upon. The Annals of Ulster mention the finding 
of the three relics of St Patrick in the year 552, 
" brought by Columba to a shrine sixty years 
after his death." These were the " Coeach " : 
cuach, a cup, a bowl ; the Angel's Gospel, and the 
bell called Clog-indhechta; clog, a bell; udhacht, a 
will or bequest, " the bell of the will." Accord- 



68 HOW ST ANDREW 

ing to angelic instruction the cup went to Down, 
the bell to Armagh, and the gospel to Columba 
himself. We hear nothing more of that bell till 
the year 1044, when Carlingford was ravaged for 
some desecration of the bell, probably the break- 
ing of an oath given upon it, for it was what was 
called a " swearing relic." The " Tripartite " life 
of Patrick explains the bell being in Columba's 
possession. Having converted that part of 
Armagh, in which is Donaghmore (see p. 29), 
the " great relic," Patrick placed over the con- 
verts the presbyter Columba, and left him his 
bell and service book. The bell, then, was in the 
diocese of Armagh before Patrick's death. No 
doubt the historians who are responsible for these 
statements allowed for Columba having taken the 
bell with him to lona and brought it back. It 
was " discovered " at Armagh within eighty-three 
years of Patrick's death. 

All tradition admits the presence in Ulster of 
Picts, Cruithnigh, but it is not necessary here to 
go into the question of special Irish and special 
Pictish districts of Ulster, the more so as we are 
told that the original Picts of Scotland came from 
Ireland. Whatever tradition we have has come 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 69 

to US filtered through church records, unless we 
go back to Cuchullin, said to have been a heathen 
of the Tuatha De, " the tribe of the divinity." 
His name seems best explained as " dog of the 
son of Fillan," and if this is accepted, he is an 
impersonation of those who were called " Fort- 
rennibh, and, like his Scotch congeners, a disciple 
of Fillan. There are other things to be said in 
support of this view, even without making much 
of his instruction in military matters, by a female 
teacher in the Isle of Skye. CuchuUin's special 
patrimony was a place called Cualgne, located in 
the present Carlingford Peninsula, but anciently 
placed in Murthemne, phonetically Murreiv. Com- 
pare the name Cicalngo. with Gual, the " wall," 
and Murthemne with Murtheiv, Moray, a Pictish 
district of Scotland, a name connected with the 
Latin murus a " wall," tmir in Celtic dialects ; and 
we may take as an example of the use of the 
words the following Breton which contains both. 
" Gwall ledan eo muriou ar gear-ze," " the walls 
of this town are very large," more literally, " a 
broad wall the walls of this gaer " (see p. 6, car). 
It is right to mention that the words Murthemne 
and Moray have also been derived from mor the 



70 HOW ST ANDREW 

" sea," Breton and Welsh ; vmr mnir in Gaelic. 
The Irish Murthemne was, according to authority, 
the north of Louth, the part containing Carling- 
ford Peninsula and marching with Armagh, and 
nearly opposite the Isle of Man. 

Always going on the principle that traditional 
tales have a founding in fact, however obscure 
that foundation may be, we are here trying to point 
out where traditions correspond in essentials, and 
we must consider what we are told of another 
Scottish demigod, equally at home in Alba, Man 
and Ireland, Finn IMacCool. The tenth century 
Pictish Chronicle says the name Scot and Scythian 
are the same words, and it says, " the Scythian 
tribes are born with white hair from the constant 
snows, and the very colour of their hair gave a 
name to the nation, and so they were called 
Albani." This is all wrong to speak at large, but 
if it was looked upon as history in the tenth cen- 
tury, the same mistakes probably were accepted 
in the previous centuries. Scythia was a very 
wide word, and was applicable to the whole north 
of Europe including the Teutonic tribes, and we 
have pointed out good reason to believe that 
before the invasion of Hengist and Horsa, accepted 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 71 

as a historical fact, there were Teutonic settlers in 
the east of Scotland who had given a name to the 
Firth of Forth. If Scythians, then, according to 
the Pictish Chronicle, they were fair men, and had 
probably come to that locality and joined them- 
selves on to the Roman settlers in the district of 
the dyke. Of these large fair men Finn MacCool 
seems to be an impersonation. Finn undoubtedly 
means " fair," " white," and Cool as pronounced, 
cunihal, as written, has no more plain sailing 
equivalent in fact than Gual, the " wall," the 
" dyke." He was then " Fair, son of the wall." 
His date is said to have been just before the 
coming of Patrick to Ireland — in Irish story at 
any rate. His followers are called the Feen, and 
are described as an early Scottish (always ac- 
cepted as Irish) militia, though it includes 
naturally men from the far north, Scythian say, 
Cimmerian, Albannich, as well as Hibernians. The 
name Feen offers a wide field for philological con- 
jecture, but connecting it with the name of their 
leader, Finn, Fionn, it should mean the fair-haired 
men, the Albannich, the Scythians. They were 
all great warriors, and if we compare it with the 
\.2X\x\ faenus, meaning capital lent out on interest. 



72 HOW ST ANDREW 

and so applied to seed sown " Seniina quae inagno 
faenore reddat ager,'' it would connect them with 
the Gaelic name for the Picts as seed sowers, i.e. 
husbandmen, and further, considering the Latin 
saying of a savage ox with hay on its horns 
applied to a dangerous ma.n,/aeHum habet in cornu, 
we see how it may have been considered as a title 
applicable to people, warriors by descent and 
custom. Describing a man by his possessional 
status was quite a Gaelic habit, take, for instance, 
the Irish title " Bo-aire," cow-chief 

Starting with St Jerome's statement that the 
barbarian of North Britain acknowledged no 
marriage tie, and that, speaking against Pelagius, 
he said he did not condemn double marriages, 
it is fairly clear that, granting there was a 
Christian Church in North Britain and Ireland, the 
relation of marriage was by no means so strict as 
to be likely to satisfy those who maintained that 
its members should be the husband of one wife. 
The Culdee Church, even among its overseers 
(bishops), certainly permitted union of the sexes. 
No doubt, according to what has been handed down, 
history shows us settlements of clerics entirely 
separated from all female society, but these were 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 73 

special celibates who practized what they considered 
the carrying of Christian teaching to its extreme, 
and the account we have of them comes from 
Romish clerics. The Pelagian Church in general 
was probably unaccustomed to any such conven- 
tion, and the primary efforts of Palladius,Germanus, 
and Lupus may, in the case of the two last at 
least, have caused a belief in their having in- 
fluenced in some way the leaders of the people. 
When Adamnan, said to have been born in 624, 
was persuaded to accept the Roman Easter and 
Roman tonsure and did change the opinions of 
certain of the Scots — let us speak at large — lona 
still remained unconvinced, and doubtless the 
great majority of the Culdee Church. At the 
date at which Adamnan flourished, the Romish 
Church took active steps to win the Scottish 
Church, Pope John IV. himself writing to the 
heads of the North Irish Church, This brings 
us to the date of the second Patrick, and doubt- 
less the putting in shape satisfactory to Rome, of 
the Palladius old Patrick story ; but the congre- 
gational Culdee Church still remained though the 
object of attention from the Romanists of the 
south, who were so interested that it was a con- 



74 HOW ST ANDREW 

tested point between York and Canterbury under 
which See the Church in the north of the island 
was to be reckoned as subject. If we compare 
what we have seen in the action of the Romish 
Church, fixing a patron saint for Ireland and 
choosing for that patron him who was known in 
history as the first bishop commissioned by Rome 
to the Scots, Palladius, under the name of 
Patricius, and utilizing as a relic of him the bell 
of the holy man with the Gaelic name Fillan, 
reverenced by the Culdee Church in Armagh, 
when they had " found " it, as they said ; we would 
have an exact parallel to such action when the 
nominee of Canterbury found a relic of the same 
Fillan at St Andrews, receiving the same rever- 
ence, but with a name unfamiliar to Canterbury, 
seized upon the conjectured Scythian origin of 
the Albanic Scots, should instruct that their 
patron saint was the same as that of other 
Scythians, viz., St Andrew, and therefore held 
forth that the arm-bone that had been at 
Kilrimont was the arm-bone of St Andrew. The 
older Church, who were in possession of an arm- 
bone, apparently ignorant of the identity of their 
Fillan Avith his original Lupus, retained the Gaelic 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 75 

name connected with their relic. If these, specu- 
lations we admit, but formed on as firm grounds 
as the history of these times afford, are correct, 
we explain how but one arm relic, one stone, one 
bell-knocker remain, all of the one historic Fillan. 
That every congregation of the Culdee Church 
had a bell we need not doubt, and so more than 
one was pretty certain to have remained. 

All these relics connected with the name of 
Fillan were found in Pictland, and establish a fact, 
viz., the reverence for a Christianity different 
evidently from that of Rome. Is it the least 
Ukely that there was no knowledge of this faith in 
the Pictish Settlement at the head of the Moray 
Firth? The writer of the life of St Columba, 
however, says that Columba visited the king of 
a fort at the mouth of the Ness, provided him 
with a druid, and converted him and his people 
by the help of a stone. He gives the king a 
name of which thirty are said to have reigned 
over the Picts, the same name being given to the 
Pictish chief who defeated and killed Egfred, king 
of the Saxons ; the name was " Brude " = farmer, 
a name evidently connected with the Gaelic 
bruig, later brug, inhabited or cultivated land, the 



76 HOW ST ANDREW 

occupier of which received the name of briigaid, 
and his house was a bruden. Adamnan's 
" Columba " is manufactured history, we have no 
doubt ; and the Romanists, who manufactured it, 
were utilizing as the converter of the Picts one 
who was credited with accepting Romish doctrine. 
His relics were said to have been brought to 
Dunkeld by Kenneth MacAlpine about the year 
850, the same year in which the Scone stone was 
said to be brought from Dunstaffnage. This con- 
stitutes a traditional connection between Columba 
and the coronation-stone, Dunkeld having be- 
come the Romish bishopric of central Scotland. 
Columba's relics were never seen by anyone 
apparently, doubtless because, as the Annals of 
Ulster tell us, they were carried to Ireland 
about 878. 

We have laid considerable stress upon the war- 
like credit given to the Pictish people of middle 
Scotland, and have pointed out how Palladius, 
whom we take as the historical personage repre- 
sented in Irish tradition as Sen Patraic, died in 
Fordun, in the Mearns, in modern Kincardine. 
The difference in name is explicable. Palladius 
seems to have been a Scot, not necessarily an 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 77 

Irishman, and to have, of course, had a native 
name Sochet or Sucat, Succetus, translated " God 
of war " or " Strong in war," because Su in British 
was the Latin fortis and cat = war. So is still 
used in Gaelic as the equivalent of fitness for 
any purpose, e.^. so-lubadh, fitness for bending, 
flexible. Palladius is taken as a Latin translation 
of this British name ; Pallas being the goddess of 
war and wisdom, therefore Palladius equals " in- 
spired by Pallas," not by Mars, for instance, and 
we think the use of the name of the goddess 
accords more particularly with the indications of 
reverence for the female, of which there are dis- 
tinct traces both in Goffrey's " British History," 
and the Irish legend of the " Tribe of the goddess 
Dana." Patrick also, at a later date, was called 
Coithrige, which apparently is derived from cat 
" battle," and rig " king," and so an Irish version 
of the British Sucat, which had lost any evident 
meaning to Gaelic speakers. The well-known fact 
that for the British " p " the Irish used " q," thus 
British »iap = "son," Irish maij, viac= "son," leads 
to the belief that in this want of attention to 
their fs and q's, Ouatrig was originally an Irish 
rendering of Patricius. 



78 HOW ST ANDREW 

The interchange of Christian and heathen times 
of the Gaelic speaking tribes is evident in the 
connection with the name Oengus. Irish story 
speaks of a tribe which invaded Ireland called the 
Tuatha De Danann. Tuatha is the Irish tiiaith, 
Albanic tuath, a rural district, and its inhabitants 
the uncivilized, boorish so to speak, and defines 
in general the north, that is for a Gaelic speaker 
what lies to the left hand, and so something 
sinister. One sees, therefore, how anyone coming 
from the north had been looked upon as more 
rude than those who had come from the south in 
these early days. The word De is " God," and 
Dana is accepted as name of a " goddess," there- 
fore we see that we have here rude, rustic fol- 
lowers of Dana, whoever she may have been. 
There is reason for supposing that the name con- 
notes Diana, as " Anna " was said to be the name 
of the mother of the Irish Gods. The Tuatha 
De, as they are usually spoken of, i.e. the tribes 
of the goddess, are credited with a leader called 
the Dagda, who, in the stories that have come 
down to us, appears a male who had as many 
cloaks as there are heavens, as stated in the 
Kabala. The name signifies " Good God " or 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 79 

" Goddess," and we must therefore consider this 
deity as originally female. He had a daughter 
Brigit, the same name as that of the female saint, 
the Mary of the Gael. Brigit is the female equiva- 
lent to the male Brude already considered. The 
Dagda had also a son called the " Mac-Og," also 
" Mac-In-Og," meaning either the " young son " 
or the " son of the youth," the youthful female in 
this case, Mac-in-Og then, the son of the good 
goddess, a female. Who the good goddess was, 
according to the idea of the old writer of what is 
called Cormac's Glossary, is clear enough, who 
says " Cera i in Dagdae," Cera, that is the good 
Divinity. Ceres equal Demeter, mother earth, the 
more vulgar Latin Bona Dea, good goddess. The 
most celebrated possession of the Dagda was a 
" never dry cauldron " (nunquan satis ?), and this 
he had brought from two places where he had 
been before going to Ireland, called respectively 
Dobhar and lar Dobhar — Dober and West Dober 
meaning the Water and the West Water, to all 
appearance Forth and Clyde. The Young Son 
or the Son of the young female has another name, 
Oengus, especially of Brugh na Boinne. Oengus, 
as we have said, is Unicus ; Brugh — the gh is 

F 



8o HOW ST ANDREW 

silent — is the name given to a hollow tumulus 
{bru is the womb) on the banks of the Boyne. 
The River Boyne is called from Boand, said to be 
the wife of a Nechtan, who treated a holy spring, 
now called Trinity Well, with disrespect, and the 
water bursting up broke her thigh bone, one hand, 
and one eye, and when she fled in this condition, 
pursued her to the sea. Nectan is a Pictish name, 
meaning apparently an-ith-an, " the corn one." 
We have Nithan, son of Fife, in the chronicles of 
the Picts and Scots, who also is called Nectan, 
son of Fotla, — Fotla, the suppositious original of 
the female from whom the name Athol. 

Oengus was remarkable for his beauty, thus 
Cormac Mac Art, the king of Ireland, is compared 
for his good looks to Oengus, son of the Dagda. 
The worship of the Bona Dea was special to 
females, and we are told by Bede that there was 
a monastery of virgins at the city of Coludi, 
identified with Coldingham in Berwickshire, 
virgins of doubtful reputation, who on the death 
of Ebba their abbess became even more wicked. 
So bad were they, they were destroyed by fire as 
a judgment. In tradition Oengus of Brugh na 
Boinne is said to have had four birds created from 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 8l 

his kisses, which formed the flagstones of the lis, 
court, palace, church oi Lug mac Eithlenn. There 
were four things in all said to be brought from 
the country from which the Tuatha De came to 
Ireland, one was the Dagda's cauldron already 
mentioned, another was the Lia Fail, the " flag- 
stone of the enclosure," and the other two were 
the sword and spear of Lug mac Eithlenn. The 
four kisses, the four birds, and the four special 
possessions of the Tuatha De are certainly inti- 
mately connected. Lug means small, also quick, 
swift. Lug's name is frequently spelt Lugaidh ; 
and with this we may compare the Irish lughadog 
and luda, the " little finger." Mac, of course, is 
" son," and Eithlenn a female, is to be translated 
as connected with ith, gen. etho, " corn," and lajin 
an " enclosure," a " repository." We might trans- 
late it best by the Lowland Scottish " meal 
girnall." 

Lug's spear was doubtless as certain in its 
effect as that of Oengus of the poisoned spear, 
and his sword of that description well known in 
Gaelic tradition which was so efficient that it left 
nothing to be done after a stroke with it. The 
special tribe of Oengus of the poisoned spear was 



82 HOW ST ANDREW 

located in Bregia, of which he was king. The 
Gaelic for Bregia is Maghbreagh, and it is note- 
worthy at any rate that breach is Gaelic for a 
wolf, as fuel is from whence Fillan, and 
Maghbreagh, Bregia is thus comparable with 
Magh Circinn, the plain of the Bogheads, in 
Alba called Angus. Who the Oengus, the king 
in this v/olfs plain, was has its explanation when 
we see that his people, driven out of Bregia and 
settling in Waterford, were, according to O'Curry, 
thenceforward known as the " Deise." losa, 
Gaelic for Jesus, therefore the tribe (of the) God 
Jesus, surely a Mac-in-Og. 

How much of this is purely manufactured 
history it is hard to say. 

According to O'Flaherty, the thirty-third king 
of Ireland, flourishing 1421 before Christ, was a 
certain Oengus, called Olmncad. He was of 
Ulster, and conquered Picts, Belgians, Longo- 
bards, and " Colastians," who O'Flaherty sup- 
poses to mean " Caledonians." Muc is a " pig," 
cad, cat, battle. The boar, as badge of the 20th 
Roman Legion, appears in sculpture on Antonine's 
dyke, and also on the rock of Dunad, the fortifica- 
tion in the INIoss of Crinan, the early Dunolly. 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 83 

The 20th Legion was stationed at Chester, and 
the boar figures largely in Welsh tradition. In 
Grecian story Oenopion, who instituted the boar- 
hunt in Chios, is also called Oeneus, and he was 
king of Calydon, certainly much nearer the name 
for modern Scotland than Colastia. Though it 
is hard to believe that a British writer, even in 
early days, who had got some knowledge of 
heroic Greek fable could have fancied the Greek 
Calydon to be the Albanic Caledonia ; we cannot 
doubt that the Greek story of Oeneus was the 
nest-egg for the Irish story of the Oengus Olmucad. 

We maintain that as Brude — let us translate it 
" landlord " — was used as a title for suppositious 
kings, so Oengus, Aengus, meaning the " only 
one," was used more or less in the same way. 
The oldest calendar of Gaelic saints that we have 
has appropriately been ascribed to an Oengus 
called the " Culdee," but the date of the composi- 
tion of the so-called " list of festivals," Felire, 
seems clearly that of the end of the tenth century. 
An Oengus Cele-de is said to have flourished 
about 200 years before that, and we conclude 
that his name was taken as author as an appro- 
priate connection with the earliest Christian 



84 HOW ST ANDREW 

Church in Ireland — a common device for giving 
authority to what purposed to be an ancient work. 
This habit must be accepted as accounting for 
the Romish Church giving the name of Oengus to 
the first royal convert in Ireland made by Patrick, 
and that given to the first royal Pictish convert 
accepting the Christianity of Rome, and incident- 
ally St Andrew as Alba's patron saint. 

The vague traditions of the earliest church 
among the Picts in Alba connect with the same 
idea as that we have given when considering the 
name of the Dagda. The name Ninian as we 
have it now, also Ninyas, is said to have been 
that of the first royal convert to Christianity of 
the Galwegian Picts — Galwegia being a descrip- 
tive name connected with the Welsh Galwydel to 
be translated like the Irish name Gallgaedel, 
i.e. foreign sylvan dwellers, just as the name 
Caledonia is connected with Celydd, a " sheltered 
place " ; Celli, a " grove " or " bovver " ; so 
Galwydel, Gallgaedel, was applied to a mixed 
people connected with the Romano-British garri- 
son of the wall from Tyne to Solway. The name 
Ninia, like that of Oengus, is connected with oen, 
aen, ean, ein ; Welsh, un, " one " ; and the definite 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 85 

article, and dea — goddess N-ein-dia. If academic 
philology is right, the masculine name Ninian 
really is " The one," formed in contradistinction 
and subsequently to that of Ninia ; Ninia, " the 
one female (goddess)," which would correspond 
closely with the female worship found in the 
reverence for the female Dagda. 

Finally, we have another instance of the use of 
this name, and, as we found an Oengus credited 
with writing the oldest Festology of the Irish 
saints, so we have in the so-called Nennius the 
oldest attempt at a native written British history. 
The older history by " Gildas " is not history. It 
is a comminatory dissertation ; and the very name 
given to the author — Gildas — suggests Cele-de-\is, 
the Culdee. As Nennius history contains a notice 
of St Patrick, the later Patrick, it was quite 
possibly written about the same time, or a little 
later than " Patrick's Confession " and his " Epistle 
to Coroticus," which calls the Picts apostates. It 
is surely not a mere coincidence that The One — 
compare English " Anon " ! — who wrote the first 
native history of Britain had for a baptismal 
name " an oen " with a Latin male termination 
'N-aen-ius. 



86 HOW ST ANDREW 

The identity of the grammatical derivation of 
the two names Ninia and Nennius becomes quite 
clear when we regard the Irish form of the 
name Ninian (the old genitive of Ninia used 
as the nominative of a male name), Monenn, 
" My-Nenn." 

That the significance of the name Ninia had 
become lost, but was recognized as in its origin 
female, appears in the Calendar of Aengus, who 
tells of a female saint Monnine, of whom the 
name is explained as follows : A certain dumb 
poet fasting with her was cured of his infirmity, 
the first word he said being ninnin, whence she 
was called Mo-ninin or Mo-nindach. 

The exclamation of the dumb poet " ninnin " 
was a stam.mering attempt at articulation, for, at 
the 1 6th September, one of a "great triad of 
champions " is mentioned as Moinenn (Moninn, 
etc.), " nuall each gena" " the cry (howl ?) of every 
mouth." The female saint was described as a 
" sister of Mary, for she was a virgin even as 
Mary," She lived for " nine score years." 

The conclusion we come to is that the Culdee 
Church paid a more actual reverence to the Virgin 
and child than to the male deity. To counteract 



CAME TO SCOTLAND 87 

to some extent the reverence for the female, 
and introduce a greater reverence for the Romish 
saints, was the ground plan of the doctrine incul- 
cated by later Romish propaganda in Britain. 



APPENDIX 

(See p. 31) 

Alexander's appeal to Canterbury was an apparent 
admission of Canterbury's claim to superiority over the 
Scottish Church. 

Augustine, the first converter of the Saxons and first 
Bishop of Canterbury, was originally a Benedictine of 
the convent of St Andrews at Rome, and with the 
philological argument that the name "Scot" equalled 
"Scythian" was found a plausible suggestion for giving 
St Andrew as patron saint to the Scottish Church 
now placed under the same rule as the Saxon Church 
and the Church of St Augustine. The converts of 
Germanus and Lupus were now under one rule 
(compare the name of the bringer of St Andrew's relics 
to Scotland — St Rule) with the " Saxons and Picts," 
"Scot" taking the place of Bede's " Pict." 



CHRONOLOGY 

TRADITIONAL AND HISTORICAL 

340 to 420 Jerome lived. 

400 Claudian wrote "All Ireland moved by Scots." 

420 Pelagius died. 

425 Patrick went to Ireland. Ency. Brit, says "411." 

429 Synod of Gallican bishops send Germanus and Lupus. 

431 Palladius consecrated. 

432 Palladius died. 
432 Ninia died. 

454 Hengist's invasion. 

489 Patrick baptizes Aengus, who died that year. 

493 Patrick died. Annals 4 M. Others say 469. 

552 Patrick's relics brought to Ireland by Columba. 

557 Columba went to Hy. Annals 4 M.. 

594 Columba died. 

597 Augustine converts Saxons and settles at Canter- 
bury. 

624 Adamnan born. 

636 Isidore died (Seville). 

656 Tirechan wrote life of Patrick before. 

685 Duin Ollaig burned. 

692 Adamnan Romanized. 

698 Muirchu wrote life of Patrick before. 

704 Adamnan died. 

731 Hungus reigned. 

731 Bede wrote. 

734 Fortrenn sends fleet to Ireland. 

761 Hungus died. 



go HOW ST ANDREW CAME TO SCOTLAND 

843 Lorraine (French) named. 

850 Columba's relics taken to Dunkeld. 

850 Stone brought from DunstafFnage. 

878 Columba's relics taken to Ireland. 

934 Constantine driven across Vadum Scotorum. 

975 Adulf made earl as far as the Myreford. 

980 Pictish Chronicle written about. 

1044 Carlingford ravaged for desecration of Patrick's bell. 

1093 Malcolm Canmore killed. 

1083 Maker of Shrine of Patrick's bell reigned till 1 121. 

1 1 06 Alexander First, son of Malcolm Canmore, ascended 

throne. 

1 1 14 Abbacy of Scone founded. 

1 1 14 Commencement of Saint worship ? 

1 140 Mackgrig, a tenant of Prior of St Andrews. 

1200 Abbacy of I nchaffray founded. 

1214 Malgrig, a Culdee, at Muthill. 

1296 Bachull and Bell " filched" from Scone. 

1300 Langtoft's Chronicle written about. 

1314 Fat Duncan at Bannockburn. 

1314 Culdees at St Andrews at this time, 

1 35 1 Combat of thirty in Brittany. 

1 356 O'Mellan, keeper of " Bell of the Will," died. 

1396 Combat of thirty at Perth. 

1424 Walter Lacquin in French Scots Guards. 

1497 Lewis de Claquin Man-at-Arms in Scots Guards. 

1 528 " Maccoull " of Dunolly. 

1613 Mcllglegane. 

1630 McCoull of Clan Grigor. 

1687 Stacey's blazons drawn. 

1692 Mack-Claquane. 

1798 Fillan's bell stolen to England. 



INDEX 



Abba, 35 

Abbots, 36 

Aberdour, 45 

Abthanery, 35, 36, 1:5 ; of Dull, 

Adamnan, 66, 73 ; his "Columba 
a fabrication, 76 

Adulf, II 

Aenghus of Cashel, 53 

Agricola, 8 

aistiri = doorkeeper, 42 

Alba, 5, 49 ; geographical posi- 
tion, 8, 48 ; king of, 23, 24 

Albani = white-haired, 70, 71 

Alexander I., 29, 30, 34, 57, 63, 
Appendix 

Alsh, Loch, 26 

amadan, 50 

amaethon, 50 

Andrew, St, 30, 31, 38, 55, 74, 
Appendix ; relics of, 32 

Andrews, St, 31, 32 

Angus, 32 ; a county, 82 

Anna= mother of Irish gods, 78 

Anon, 85 

Armagh, 68, 70, 74 

Arm-bone, 38, 52, 74, 75 ; St 
Andrew's, 30, 32 ; St Fillan's, 20 

Argyle, 26, 36 

Athelstan, 12 

Athole, II, 13, 23, 27 

Attacotish marriage rite, 3 

Augustine, Appendix 

Bachull more, 38 
BaInagrew = Balnadhruidh, 27 
Balmaclellan, 46 

Bal no Maoir = town of thief- 
takers, 28 
Bannockburn, 19, 28, 55 
Barscobe=:bishops' offspring? 46 



Basilica, 33 

Bell, bronze, 38; clapper, 75; no 

clapper, 41 ; shrine (Patrick's), 

56; "found," 74; as crown, 33 ; 

" Assays the bell of Scone," 14 ; 

Columba with Patrick's, 63 ; 

Fillan's, 20, 27 ; of Glenlyon, 57 ; 

of Logyrait, 39, 47 ; Patrick's, 

47; "of troops," 57 ; " of the 

Will," 47, 67, 68 
Benbecula, 12 
Birds, four=four kisses, 81 
Bishops of Scots, 31 
Black-morrow, 46, 48 
Blackness, 12 
do-aire=cowkeeper, 72 
boar of Roman Legion XX., 82, 

83 
Bodotria, 11 
Boece, 20 
Boers, 49 
Bona Dea, 79, 80 
boor=:cultivator, 50 
Bothwell, 16 
Boyne, river, 80 
Bregia, 82 
brewing, 50, 64 
Brigit, 79 
Broichan, 51 

Bruce, Robert, 20, 30, 37 
Brude, 37, 51, 79, 83 ; farmer, 75 
dru(ie?i = {a.rm-ho\ise, 76 
brug=cultivated land, 75 
Brugh na Boinne, 79, 80 

Canterbury, 74, Appendix; 

Archbishop of, 31 
car={ort, chair, 6, 69 
Carlingford, 68, 70 
Carlops, 6, 16 
caterans, 61 

91 



92 



INDEX 



cathair — see " car," 6 

Cathedral, St Fillans, 33 

Carthusians, 19 

Cauldron, Never dry, 79, 81 

Causeways, 40 

fe=the globe, 51 

Celestius, 3 

Cellach Cualan, 54 

Cera, 79 

Ceres, 79 

ci = dog, 23, 51 

Cinge, Father of Cruithne, 51 

Circinn, 23 

Ciricius, 23 

Cirig, 23 

clach = stone, 60 

clachan = village with church, 60 

clachghlagain, 39, 40 

Clachinyha, Clan, 60; =" clan- 
Kay," or " Hay" wrongly, 63 

clachinyha — qI \.\\G. causeway, 40 

clag—\if\\, 39; "buidheann" = 
bell of troops, 27, 28 

Claquin, Loys de, 41 

Clochain, 40 

C"/(?cA(Z« = causeway, 60 

Cleland, 16, 45 

cocrich^: mutual boundary, 56 

coigreach, 56 

Crozier of St Fillan, 14 

Coithrige, 77 

Colastians = Caledonians, 82, 83 

Coldingham, 80 

Coludi, 80 

Columba, 9, 45, 51, 59, 67, 68 ; at 
Inverness, 51 ; relics, 76 

Combat of " 30," 60 

Conan, 23 

Concheanns = dog heads, 24 

Congan, 26 

Conganus, 22 

Conghal Clairinghneach, 24 

Congregationalist, 35 

Conn, the hundred fighter, 54 

Constable of Scotland, 63, 64 

Constantin, 12 

corn, 49 

Coronation stone, 13, 14, 76 

Coroticus, 52 



Crinan, 36 ; abbot, 37 ; moss of, 

8, 82 
Crosier =baghel, 32, 33 ; bronze, 

38 ; double, 56 ; double at 

Strathmartin, 25 ; double — one 

inside another, 38 ; Fillans, 20 ; 

damages King's foot, 54 ; used 

as hammer, 39 
Cruithne, 23, 51 
Cruithneachd, 49 
Cruithnigh (see "Picts"), 48, 49, 

51. 63 
Cruth, 50 
cuach-=c\x^, 67 
Cualan, 54 
Cualgne, 69 
Cuchullin, 69; =dog son of 

Fillan, 22 
Cuglas = Douglas, 16 
Culdee church, 31, 32, 73, 74, 83, 

87 
Culdee church, Pictish, 67 ; mar- 
riage of, 72 ; wives, 35 ; vv'or- 

ship. 34. 37 
Cumbria, 8, 16, 48 
Cumbrian Britons, 44 
cup bearer — a Hay, 64 

DAGDA = Good deity, 78, 79, 80, 

84,85 
Daire, 54, 58 

Dana, a goddess = Diana? jj, 78 
darkness, of north, 3 
Deise, 82 
Delvinbeg, 58 
Delvine, 8, 37 
Demeter, 79 
Derry, 58 

De war = pilgrim, 15, 38 
Dluthach, 54 

Dobhar and lar Dobhar, 79 
Dochart, river, 25 
Dog days — connect with Fillan 

and Ciricus, 24 
Dogheads, 82 
Dog of Fillan, 69 
Domnach airgid, 29 
Donaghmore, 68 
Donnachadh Reamhar, 28 



INDEX 



93 



Donnachaidh, Clan, 27, 28 

Dorsair, Mac an, 42 

Douglas = grey dog, 16 

Doul, 55 

Druids, 9, 27 

d ruth = fool = harlot, 27 

drygen — dry, 11 

Dull, 36 

Dulmonych, 38 

Dunad, 37, 82 

Duncan the Fat, 28 

Duncansons, 28 

Dundurn, 18 

Dunkeld, 37, 76 

Dunnolly, 37, 82 

Dunstaffnage, 29, 53 

Durward, 42, 43 

dyke, 8, 63, 71 

Eastek, 73 ; Culdee, 66 

Ebba= abbess? 80 

Ecclesgreg, 23 

Edgar (of Northumbria), 11, 30 

Egbert, 51 

Egfrid, 37, 75 

Eilhlenn= " meal girnall," 81 

" Equity of Feen," 62 

Errol, 63 

/ae/an=woU, 15 
/aenus= profit of agriculture, 71 
/aod/iai/ =ho\\o\v in sand, 12 
faol, faolchu=:wolf, 15 
Fatal stone, 29, 32 
Feen, 71 

Felire — of Oengus Cele-de, 83 
Female descent, 21 
female reverence for, 77, 87 
Feredach, 54 

Feriach, Fillan's father, 21 
J/^ordd= passage, 13 
//i, silent, 15, 16 
P'iatach Finn, 54 
Fib, 23 

Fierce ones, of Tay, 9 
Fife, 23, 80 

Fillans, St, 18, 19, 27, 29, 55, 74 
Fillan, St, two, 21 ; why two? 53 ; 
mute, 18 ; his day, 20th June, 



24 ; genealogies, 53 ; relics, 52 ; 

bed, 18 ; bell, 14 ; fair, 9th 

January, 17 ; seat, 17 ; well, 17 ; 

on Teith, 45 
Fir Domhnanns, 51 
Fodhla, Fotla, ii, 23, 80 
ford, II 
Fordun, 66, 76 
Forfar=:great men, 10, 24, 25 
Forth, 12, 13, 71 
Forth and Clyde dyke, 44, 79 
Forrester of Torwood, 28 
Fortrenn = great brave, 8, 18, 59; 

Navigators, 9 
Fortrenn, 9, 10, 23, 24 ; Men of, 

Britons, 67 
Fothric, 12, 15 
Free love, 3 
Frisians, 44 

Gallgaedel, 84 

Galloway, 16, 59 

Galwegia, 84 

Germanus, 3, 6, 55 

Gildas = cele-de-us ? 85 

glagan, bell clapper, 39 

Glendeochquhy, 25 

Glendochart, 14, 19, 22, 30, 55 

Glenkens, 46 

Glenurchy, 26 

Gospel, Angels, 67 

Grampians, 5 

Great Fool, 50 

Greeks, 26 

Grey dog, 15 

Grig, 23 

Glial, Guaid^VJaW, 13, 28,63, 69, 
71 ; sons of, 45 ; in Irish tradi- 
tion, 54 

Gwall and miir, 69 

Hallelujah, 4, 5, 64 
Haie, de la, 63, 64 
Hays of Luncarty, 63 
Hengist, 7 

Hungus, Pict, 32, 55 ; slain at 
Scone, 56 

Icy Ireland, 48 



94 



INDEX 



Inchaffray, i8, 19, 27, 29, 30, 32, 

38 
Inistuthill, 37 
Insanity, cure of, 34 
insanus, 34 

Installation of Pictish ruler, 33 
lona, 73 
Isidore of Seville, 31 

Jerome, 3, 5, 72 
Jesus, tribe of, 82 

Karisimus Amicus, 21 
Kenneth MacAlpine, 29, 30 
Kentigern, 21 
Kentigerna, Fillan's mother, 21, 

54. 55 
Kilallan, Fillan's church, 17 
Kilellan, 26 
KilfiUan, Wigton, 45 
Killin, 19, 27 
Kilkoan, 26 
Kilrimont, 31, 32, 74 
" King's Seat of Scone," 13 
KpWrj, barley, 49 

Langtofts Chronicle, 13 

Laquin, Wastre, 40 

Leac, a flat stone, 41 

Lecky, Walter, 41 

Leper, the, 18 

Lia Fail, 81 

Linlithgow, 16 

Linn Garan, 51 

Livingstones, 38 

Logierait, 28 

Lome, 8, 37 

Lorraine, 4, 56 

Lothair, 4 

Lothian, 8 

Lug mac Eithlenn, 81 

Luncarty, 63 

Lupus, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 15, 27, 29, 35, 
37> 55. 73. 74 ; Chair of, see 
Carlops, i6; traditional? 57 

Macbeth, 37 

MacClelands of Bombie, story of 
coat armour, 46, 47 



iVIacCool, Finn, 70, 71 
McCoull, 26 

MacCuail, Macgregors, 27 
MacDonalds, 27 

MacDougall, meaning of, 43 ; 
pronunciation of, 44 ; spellings, 

43. 44 
Macgillechrist, 19 
MacGille Fhillan, 16 
MacGregors, 26 
Mackgrig, 24 
Mclnroys, 27 
Maclagan, traditional meanings, 

43 ; coat of arras, 47 
Macilglegane, Mcglagane, 39 
Mack-clagane, 41 
Maclelain, Scots Guards, 41 
Maclellan, various spellings, 45 
Maklolandus, 47 
Macnab, 36, 56 
MacQuhouU, 59 
Mac-og, Mac-in-Og, 79, 82 
Madderty, parish, 18 
Maelchallain, 58 
Maghbreagh, 82 
magh — plain, 24 
Magh Circinn, plain of dogheads, 

24. 25 
MakyneDrosser, 43 
Malcolm Canmore, 35, 63 
Malgrig, a Culdee, 24 
Man, Isle of, 70 
Maor, maer = major, 28, 48 ; 

= thane, 35, 36 
Marriage, multiple, 3 
Mars, 77 

Martin of Tours, 5 
Mary, St, 34 
Mary, a sister of, 86 
Menteith, 10 
mk = v or f, 10 
Moloch, St, 38 
Monenn, 86 
Monnine, 86 
Monteith, Earl of (see Menteith), 

26 
Moray, 69, 75 
Mormaers, 10 
Myreforth, Myrefirth, 11, 12 



INDEX 



95 



Myrcforth, Myrkvafiord, ii, 12 

Mun, of Kilmun, 54 

Mundus, St, 22 

mundus=pure, 22 

Mungo=" instructing dog," 22 

Mungu, 54 

Murthemne, 69, 70 

murus, 69 

mute, the, 18 

Muthill, 24 

Nadfraech = " portion of arm"? 

S3 
Nectan, Nithan, 80 
Negro's head, 46, 48 
Nennius, 85, 86 
Ness, river, 75 
New Hall, 7 

Ninian, Ninyas, Ninia,4, 84,85,86 
Northumberland, 8, 15 

Oeneus, King of Calydon, 83 

Oengus, Aengus, Angus, Hungus, 
78,79,80,81,82; "tbeCuldee," 
83, 8s ; Patrick's, 84 ; St 
Andrew's, 84 

Oenopion, 83 

Oister, Clan an, in lona, 42 

Olmucad, of Ulster, 82, 83 

O'Lochlein, Donald, 56 

O'Mellan, Irish, 47 

O'Mulholland, 56, 58 

One, the, 85 

ostiarius, 42 

oilvo ix Kpid^uv = ha.T\ey wine, 49 

P's AND Q's, 77 

Padie fair, 66 

Palladius, 65, 66, 73 74, 76, 77 

Pallas, 77 

Patraic, patron of Armagh, 67 

Patrick, 53, 73, 77, 85 

Pelagius, 3, 5, 72 

Pelagians, 6 

Pelagianism, 6, 65, 73 ; a heresy, 

3, 52 
Pharaoh, 31 
Picts, 9, 16, 31, 49, 50 ; apostates, 

52 



Pictish Christianity, Culdee, 45, 
52, 58 

Pictish fortification, 37 

Picts, southern, 5 ; of Galloway, 
84 ; of Ulster, 68 ; Scottish 
wives, 5, 8 ; descent through 
mother, 5 ; Pictland, 75 

Pictish Chronicle, 23 

p'\g=:muc, 82 

Pittenweem, 45 

Plato, policy of, 3 

Pledi = Palladius, 66 

Pole axes, 62 

Pool, Holy, 33 

Pope, John IV., 73 

porridge, 3 

Porteous, 42 

Prior, 36 

pulpit, 6 

QUATRIG, 77 

Qwhewyl, Clan, 59 

Rath Erann, 18 

Relic, a swearing, 68; the "great 

relic," 68 ; of Patrick, 67 
Retinue of Wall, 8 
Robertsons, 27 
Rob Reoch = Freddy Bob, 28 
rocking stone, 40 
Roman invaders, 8, 9 
Roman Walls — why said 133 miles 

long, 44 
Rule, Saxon and Scottish church 

under one. Appendix 
Rule, Regulus St, 30, 32, 55 

Saint worship in Alba, 34 

Saxons, converted, 7 

Saxons and Picts, 4, 6 

Scone, 14, 19, 30, 32, 34 ; Abbacy, 

29 ; stone, 37, 53, 59, 75 
Scotland, when so called, 49 
Scots, 8, 30; Cimmerians, etc., 

71 ; =Sciti (Scythians), 31 ; in 

Ulster, 48 ; no wives, 3 
Scota, daughter of Pharaoh, 31 
Scottish marriage rite, 3 
Scot water, 12 



96 



INDEX 



"Sculptured Stones of Scotland," 

25 

Scythia, 31, 70 

Scythians, 74; " white haired," 70 

Sen Patraig, 54, 73, 74 ; = Palla- 

dius(see Patrick), 66 
Shaving " of birds and fools," 27 
shrine, threefold, 29 
Siaracht, 22, 25, 26 
Sinell, a doorkeeper, 42 
Spear, of Lug, 81 ; poisoned, 81 
Stephen, St, 29, 30 
Steward = rff^/az>f, 28 
Strathclyde Britons, 15 
Strathearn, Earl of, 29 
Strathfillan, 18, 19, 25, 26, 33 
Strathtay, 44 
Strowan, 27 

Sucat, Sochet, Succetus, 77 
Sword, of Lug, 81 
o-/cT?!'7; = tabernacle, 14 
o-K6Ttos = darkness, 9 

Tay, tribes of, 27 
Teith, river, 10 
Teutons, early in Alba, 71 
Tom Moore, quoted, 30 
tonsure, 65, 73 ; of Culdees and 
Simon Magus, 27 



Torwood, 28 

Toul, 4, 56 

///a/'/^ = sinister, 78 

Tuatha De Danann, Tuatha De, 

69, 78 
Tula Aman, 37, 58 
Tynemouth, 55 

U Maelchalland, maer of 

Patrick's bell, 48 
unicus, 79, 83 

VAD = ford, II 
Vadum Scotorum, 12 
Virgins, College of, 80 
Virgin and child worship, 86 
vbdla-thing, 11 

Walks, North, 8 
Wall, Forth to Clyde, 7, 8 
White friars, 19 
White Kirk, 19 
Whithorn, 5 
William the Lion, 37 
Wolf, St, 45 
Wolf's plain, 82 

York, 74 ; Archbishop of, 31 



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